Next Article in Journal
A Theoretical Model to Predict the Critical Hydraulic Gradient for Soil Particle Movement under Two-Dimensional Seepage Flow
Next Article in Special Issue
Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Performance of Strain Y-12 under Low Temperature and High Concentration of Inorganic Nitrogen Conditions
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of Water Quality Improvements Using the Hydrodynamic Simulation Approach in Regulated Cascade Reservoirs: A Case Study of Drinking Water Sources of Shenzhen, China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Study on Effects of Electron Donors on Phosphine Production from Anaerobic Activated Sludge
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(11), 829;

Characterization of a Microbial Community in an Anammox Process Using Stored Anammox Sludge

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University; Shanghai 200092, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Treatment of Wastewater)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1555 KB, uploaded 29 October 2017]   |  


This study investigated a rapid start-up anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process by inoculation with stored Anammox sludge and characterized the associated microbial communities. The Anammox process took only 43 days to start. A high nitrogen removal rate of 1.13 kg N m−3 d−1 and a nitrogen loading rate of 1.28 kg N m−3 d−1 were achieved. The ratio of ammonium removal to nitrite removal to nitrate production (1:1:0.2) was slightly lower than the theoretical value, which indicated nitrogen removal by denitrification in the reactor. Illumina high-throughput sequencing of sludge samples confirmed the co-existence of Anammox bacteria and denitrifying bacteria in the reactor and demonstrated that denitrifying bacteria play a role in nitrogen removal during the Anammox process. The dominant microbes in the reactor were Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes. However, only one species of Anammox bacteria, Candidatus jettenia, was identified and had an abundance of 4.92%. Our results illustrate the relationship between Anammox reactor performance and microbial community succession. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anammox; bacterial community; start-up; up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket Anammox; bacterial community; start-up; up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, W.; Dai, X.; Cao, D.; Hu, X.; Liu, W.; Yang, D. Characterization of a Microbial Community in an Anammox Process Using Stored Anammox Sludge. Water 2017, 9, 829.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top