Evaluation of Permeable Pavement Systems for Removing Heavy Metals from Stormwater
2. Materials and Methods
- Column 1: Showing the traditional PPS structure. It contains a 15 cm layer of 5–20 mm no-fines aggregate at the bottom, followed by a 3 cm layer of 2–5 mm aggregates and 5 cm porous concrete pavers.
- Column 2: Having thin sand layers (1 cm).
- Column 4: Having a zeolite layer (2 cm).
- Column 5: Having a saturated zone (4 cm).
- Column 3: Having a saturated zone and a layer of bark chip.
- Column 6: Having a layer of sand, a saturated zone and a layer of bark chip.
- Stage 1: An average rainfall intensity of 38–40 mL/min (40 mm per 4 h) was maintained for 4 h.
- Stage 2: The experiment was further expanded by changing the rainfall intensity to 120 mm/4 h in order to investigate the outputs of the PPS columns under high-intensity rainfall.
- Stage 3: Stage 3 was done to investigate the possibility of adsorbed metal elements leaching back to the infiltrate during high-intensity rainfall. Here, we compared a standard traditional PPS structure (Column 1) with Column 6 (which showed better performance over the other 4 columns). Trials were performed starting with a rainfall intensity of 20 mm per 4 h. It was continued for 1 h and then the average rainfall intensity was raised to 120 mm per 4 h. The characteristics of the synthesised runoff were set close to natural stormwater quality referring to the available literature (average values in mg/L were Al-70, Cr-77, Cu-348, Mo-107, Sr-136, Ba-72, Co-35, Mn-72, Ni-83, Zn-86).
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Heavy Metal Treatment Performance of Column 1 (Traditional Structure)
3.2. The Effect of the Subbase Material and Layer Setting on the Total Dissolved Metal Attenuation under 40 mm/4 h and 120 mm/4 h Rainfalls
3.3. Influence of the Organic Carbon Content, pH and Other Pollutants on Dissolved Metal Attenuation
3.4. Comparison of the Standard Traditional PPS Structure (Column 1) with the Proposed PPS Structure (Column 6) for Metal-Rich Sites—Stage 2
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Parameter||Average Concentration (mg/L)||Standard Deviation|
|Ammonium Nitrogen (NH4-N)||0.53||0.01|
|Nitrogen as Nitrites (NO2-N)||0.51||0.07|
|Nitrogen as Nitrates (NO3-N)||0.56||0.04|
|Total Inorganic Nitrogen (TIN-N)||1.59||0.12|
|Organic Carbon (Org-C)||3.68||1.04|
|Org-C at Column Outlets (mg/L)||pH at Column Outlets||Percentage of Attenuated Total Inorganic Nitrogen as N|
|Pollutant||Average Attenuation (%)|
|Low-Intensity Rainfall||High-Intensity Rainfall|
|Column 1||Column 6||Column 1||Column 6|
|Metal Element||Average Reduction (%)|
|1st Hour||2nd Hour||3rd Hour||4th Hour|
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Kuruppu, U.; Rahman, A. Evaluation of Permeable Pavement Systems for Removing Heavy Metals from Stormwater. Water 2023, 15, 1573. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081573
Kuruppu U, Rahman A. Evaluation of Permeable Pavement Systems for Removing Heavy Metals from Stormwater. Water. 2023; 15(8):1573. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081573Chicago/Turabian Style
Kuruppu, Upeka, and Ataur Rahman. 2023. "Evaluation of Permeable Pavement Systems for Removing Heavy Metals from Stormwater" Water 15, no. 8: 1573. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081573