# Numerical Simulation Study on the Influence of Construction Load on the Cutoff Wall in Reservoir Engineering

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Overview of Cut-Off Wall Project

## 3. Construction Plan and Calculation Model

#### 3.1. Construction Plan

- Determine the construction position: according to the design drawings, set out the baseline of the cut-off wall;
- Construction guide wall: The guide wall earthwork is excavated along the baseline by trench sections. The excavation depth is based on the wall elevation of each trench section. Support the formwork and pour C15 concrete. The finished guide wall should be at the same height as the surrounding ground surface to facilitate the subsequent movement of the punching and grabbing machinery;
- Mechanical grooving: Use a punching machine to grab the wall groove section in the guide groove between the guide walls. The length of the groove section is strictly controlled within the specification requirements. Mud is used to protect the hole wall to prevent collapse;
- Construction of plastic concrete wall: The plastic concrete wall is poured with C2 concrete. The pouring process should be coordinated with the mechanical groove to ensure the quality of the wall at the joint. It is advisable to use a conduit to facilitate the pouring;
- Construction of reinforced concrete wall: The reinforced concrete wall is located on the surface, and the concrete label is C15. According to the design size of the wall, the wall formwork is divided into grooves, the rigid cage is bound, and the concrete is poured.

- Subgrade backfill both sides of cut-off wall at the same time, the thickness of each layer of fill is about 0.5 m. The thickness after compaction is about 0.3 m;
- Both sides of the subgrade and impervious wall shall be compacted. Small equipment or manual tamping is used for narrower areas. Large-scale equipment or rolling equipment is used for relatively wide areas.

#### 3.2. Calculation Model

#### 3.2.1. Monitor the Geometric Dimensions of Section Models 1 and 2

#### 3.2.2. Geometric Dimensions of 3D Cut-Off Wall Model

## 4. Dynamic Construction Stability Analysis of Cut-Off Wall

#### 4.1. Analysis of Deformation Law

#### 4.2. Analysis of Stress Distribution Law

## 5. Conclusions

- The deformation trend of the wall can be divided into three stages as the construction steps proceed. The first stage: Fill on both sides of the wall, but the width of the fill on the outside of the reservoir is large, and the wall is subject to the lateral constraint of the original reservoir embankment. The whole wall is inclined to the inside of the reservoir. The second stage: There is a large amount of fill in the inner side of the reservoir. Due to the gravity effect of the unilateral soil accumulation, the overall inclination of the wall has recovered. At this stage, the wall tends to move towards the outer side of the reservoir. The third stage: due to the soil piling work outside the reservoir during the construction stage of the Beijing-Shijiazhuang Expressway subgrade, the wall began to tilt towards the inside of the reservoir;
- In the process of filling construction, the whole impervious wall shows a tendency to tilt towards the inner side of the reservoir. The horizontal displacement value of the wall gradually increases from bottom to top, and the maximum value appears at the top of the wall. The horizontal displacement value of the 1–3 walls is relatively large, with the maximum value of 22.368 mm, and the horizontal displacement value of the 4–10 walls does not differ greatly. The largest difference in the horizontal displacement of the cu-off wall occurs at the joint between the third and fourth walls, and between the fourth and fifth walls, with the maximum difference of 1.314 mm;
- During the filling construction, due to the gravity of the backfill, the strata in the whole project area have settled, and the settlement at the bottom of the cut-off wall is 2.542 mm. The settlement characteristics of the rigid cut-off wall and plastic concrete cut-off wall are different. The settlement value of the rigid cut-off wall does not change along the wall height and its value is about 5.3 mm (the second) and 4.7 mm (the fifth and seventh). The settlement value of the plastic concrete wall shows a clear gradient along the elevation direction and its value changes evenly between 2.5–5.3 mm (the second) and 2.5–4.7 mm (the fifth and seventh).
- The horizontal displacement of the cut-off wall is mainly caused by the asymmetry of the fill on both sides. The fill pressure directly affects the horizontal displacement (inclination) of the reinforced concrete wall and then drives the horizontal displacement of the plastic concrete at the lower part through the structural involvement. The analysis shows that the guide wall has a great clamping effect on the deformation of the plastic cut-off wall, which makes the horizontal displacement between the rigid cut-off wall and the plastic cut-off wall interact and creates a nonlinear relationship. The vertical displacement of the cut-off wall is mainly caused by a compression deformation of the lower stratum under the action of structural gravity. On account of the elastic modulus of the plastic concrete wall material and the small surrounding stratum, the change is relatively obvious during the compression process, while the compression amount of the reinforced concrete wall itself is very small. Its settlement deformation is mainly the vertical movement of the rigid body with the settlement deformation of the plastic cut-off wall;
- The stress on the cut-off wall decreases gradually from bottom to top, and its stress value is slightly larger than that of the surrounding strata. At the root of the rigid cu-toff wall, the compressive stress concentration occurs, with the maximum value between 1.75 MPa and 2.15 MPa. Due to the size of the structure, the maximum tensile stress of 0.237 MPa appears in the local area near the guide wall of the rigid cut-off wall, which will not endanger the rigid cut-off wall because of its small value. The maximum shear stress in the ZX plane of the cut-off wall is only about 0.236 MPa, which is located in the lower part of the rigid cut-off wall. The shear stress in the plastic cut-off wall is one order of magnitude lower. The maximum stress on the plastic cut-off wall is generally below 1.5 MPa, and it is compressive stress;
- The maximum compressive stress occurs at the lower part of the rigid impervious wall, and the stress at the lower part of the first to the third is slightly greater than that of the wall at other locations. The local stress on the plastic impervious wall in this area is also greater than that of the plastic impervious wall in other areas, and their values are small. The maximum stress in the rigid impervious wall and the plastic impervious wall are 1.90–2.15 MPa and 1.00–1.12 MPa, respectively. The shear stress distribution in the ZX plane is also greater than that of the cut-off wall at other locations in the second and third walls, and the maximum shear stress is only about 0.236 MPa;
- Apart from the small tensile stress at the connecting guide wall between the rigid cut-off wall and the plastic concrete cut-off wall, the cut-off wall is basically under pressure, especially the plastic cut-off wall. During the construction process, the deformation of the backfill soil on both sides of the wall is relatively large, while the deformation of the whole wall is in a relatively small range, without obvious differential deformation. Combined with the analysis of the stress state of the wall, it can be determined that the anti-seepage wall (rigid cut-off wall and plastic concrete cut-off wall) is stable and safe during the construction period.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Schematic diagram of the cut-off wall structure. (

**a**) Schematic diagram of the interface between reinforced concrete wall and plastic concrete wall. (

**b**) Schematic diagram of joints between rigid cut-off walls.

**Figure 3.**Step-by-step construction of rigid cut-off walls. (

**a**) Construction of the lower wall. (

**b**) Construction of the upper wall.

**Figure 4.**Monitoring 1, 2 section model. (

**a**) Grid division of monitoring section model 1 and 2. (

**b**) Monitoring the relationship between the backfill soil and cut-off wall at sections 1 and 2.

**Figure 5.**Three-dimensional cut-off wall model. (

**a**) Meshing of 3D model. (

**b**) Mesh division of cutoff wall.

**Figure 6.**Cloud map of deformation law in analysis area of cut-off wall. (

**a**)Analysis Domain Horizontal Displacement Contour. (

**b**)Analysis domain vertical displacement cloud map. (

**c**) Analyzing Domain and Displacement Contour.

**Figure 10.**The overall deformation of cut-off wall. (

**a**) horizontal displacement of cut-off wall. (

**b**) vertical displacement of cut-off wall.

**Figure 11.**Horizontal displacement change of cut-off wall at monitoring section. (

**a**) Monitoring 1 section cut-off wall. (

**b**) Monitoring 2 section cut-off wall.

**Figure 12.**Vertical displacement variation of cut-off wall. (

**a**) Monitoring 1 section cut-off wall. (

**b**) Monitoring section 2 cut-off wall.

**Figure 15.**Stress distribution in the analysis area. (

**a**) Nephogram of maximum principal stress. (

**b**) Minimum principal stress nephogram. (

**c**) YZ in-plane shear stress nephogram.

**Figure 19.**Schematic diagram of overall stress distribution of the cut-off wall. (

**a**) Nephogram of maximum principal stress. (

**b**) Minimum principal stress nephogram. (

**c**) Nephogram of shear stress in YZ plane of the cut-off wall.

**Figure 20.**Comparison of maximum principal stress distribution of cut-off wall at monitoring surface. (

**a**) 1. (

**b**) 2.

**Figure 21.**Comparison of minimum principal stress distribution of cut-off wall at monitoring surface. (

**a**) 1. (

**b**) 2.

**Figure 22.**Comparison of shear stress distribution on YZ plane of cut-off l at monitoring surface. (

**a**) 1. (

**b**) 2.

**Table 1.**Comparison of the maximum deformation of the soil in the filling area of the monitoring surface.

Deformation Type Displacement (m) | Monitoring Surface | |
---|---|---|

1 | 2 | |

Horizontal | 0.6303 | 0.6292 |

Vertical | 1.6040 | 1.6025 |

Combined | 1.6775 | 1.6759 |

**Table 2.**Comparison of displacement and settlement of cut-off wall at different monitoring sections.

Position of Displacement | Monitoring Section | |
---|---|---|

1 | 2 | |

Horizontal displacement of the top of the rigid cut-off wall (m) | 0.01801 | 0.01732 |

Horizontal displacement of the top of the plastic cut-off wall (m) | 0.001704 | 0.001588 |

Top Settlement of Plastic cut-off wall (m) | 0.004966 | 0.004932 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Sun, Y.; Lei, A.; Yang, K.; Wang, G. Numerical Simulation Study on the Influence of Construction Load on the Cutoff Wall in Reservoir Engineering. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 993.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050993

**AMA Style**

Sun Y, Lei A, Yang K, Wang G. Numerical Simulation Study on the Influence of Construction Load on the Cutoff Wall in Reservoir Engineering. *Water*. 2023; 15(5):993.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050993

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Sun, Yongshuai, Anping Lei, Ke Yang, and Guihe Wang. 2023. "Numerical Simulation Study on the Influence of Construction Load on the Cutoff Wall in Reservoir Engineering" *Water* 15, no. 5: 993.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050993