# Experimental and Numerical Study on Flow Control Using 3-Array Submerged Vane in Laboratory Channel Bend

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Experimental Set-Up

_{mean}denote the discharge flow, channel width, depth of flow, wetted area, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, flow Froude number and inlet mean flow velocity in Table 1. In this study, since the Froude number is less than 1, it was observed that there is a subcritical flow or river regime.

#### 2.2. Mathematical Model

#### 2.2.1. Basic Equations

_{i}is the velocity components; x

_{i}is the coordinate components; ρ is the density; g is the gravity; µ is the molecular viscosity; P is the correct pressure; µ

_{t}is the turbulent viscosity, which can be derived from the turbulent kinetic energy k and turbulent dissipation rates:

_{k}and σ

_{ε}are turbulence Prandtl numbers for k and ε equation, respectively, σ

_{k}= 1.0, σ

_{ε}= 1.3, C

_{1ε}and C

_{2ε}are ε equation constants, C

_{1ε}= 1.44, C

_{2ε}= 1.92. C

_{μ}= 0.09 is a constant, determined by experimentally.

_{w}is volume fraction of water. In each cell, the sum of the volume fractions of air and water is unity. Volume fractions of air denote αa can be given as,

#### 2.2.2. Boundary Conditions for Submerged Vanes

_{p}” is the distance from point p to the wall; empirical constant “E” has the value of 9.79; “u

_{*}” is the friction velocity. The “u” uniform velocity distribution was given to the horizontal velocity component in the x-direction at the inflow boundary. The vertical velocity component “v” in the y-direction was set to zero. The inlet velocity field to the channel consists of a forward ‘u’ horizontal velocity and zero ‘v’ vertical velocities at all points except points close to the channel.

^{+}is a dimensionless distance similar to the local Reynolds number often used in CFD to indicate how the mesh is for a particular flow. It determines whether the effects in cells adjacent to the wall are laminar or turbulent [27].

_{τ}is the friction velocity, y is the height from the wall to the mid-point of the wall-adjacent cells, v is the kinematic viscosity, τ

_{w}is the wall shear stress and ρ is the fluid density at the wall. Values of y

^{+}close to the lower bound (y

^{+}≈ 30) are most desirable for wall functions, whereas values of y

^{+}≈ 1 are better for near-wall modelling [28].

#### 2.2.3. Meshing-Grid Information

_{0}and V

_{1}cases. CFD model was created according to the open channel experiment (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Initial and boundary conditions were established according to the experimental study. 1,927,650 meshes for V

_{0}submerged vane case and for the V

_{1}case, 1,938,869 meshes were assigned. In addition, tetrahedron-type meshes were used in the design.

_{0}and V

_{1}cases. The CFD model was created according to the open channel experiment setup consisting of 1 main meander channel (Figure 1 and Figure 2). According to the experimental inlet measure (Table 1), inlet conditions and boundary layer conditions were established. The boundary conditions of the flow formed with V

_{0}and V

_{1}cases have been defined. Figure 4 shows the surfaces for the CFD model solution. According to Figure 4, the water inlet height = velocity inlet, submerged vane − open channel surfaces = wall and outlet section (in downstream) = outflow were accepted. In addition, for the flow discharge of 25 L/s, the water inlet height was defined as 9.5 cm.

#### 2.2.4. Numerical Solver

## 3. Results and Discussion

_{mean}”. The 1st point represents the point close to the inner bank, and the 8th point represents the point close to the outer bank. The experimental and numerical model velocity values obtained in all sections are shown in Figure 7. Table 4 shows the error rates by comparing the experimental and CFD analysis results. In Figure 8a–c velocity contours of the 1-1, 2-2 and 3-3 cross-sections (without vane situation) are given, respectively.

_{1}case. In Figure 10a–c velocity contours of the 1-1, 2-2 and 3-3 cross-sections (“with vane”) are given, respectively.

_{0}and V

_{1}cases were also investigated. Water level changes given numerical contour with Vof in Figure 11 for V

_{0}and V

_{1}cases. In addition, CFD -water depth changes (as cm) in V

_{0}and V

_{1}case at for all sections.

_{1}case compared to the V

_{0}case. When the changes in % are examined (Figure 12d), it can be said that there is a greater increase in the 1-1 and 3-3 sections than in the 2-2 sections.

## 4. Conclusions

^{−1}. The numerical results of the flow velocities were confirmed by experimental results. The effect of the vane structure on the flow velocity measured in the flow channel was determined and the 3 sectional velocity changes of the 3-array with 3 submerged vane (“with vane”) structures were compared experimentally and numerically to each other. The following results can be derived from this study:

- The simulated CFD velocity for the without vane and 9 (3 × 3) vane cases were compared with the measured data. If the results of the experiments are examined in accordance with the CFD simulation results, a lower error has been detected. Figure 1. Flow velocity changes for ‘with vanes’ situation at sections; 1-1, 2-2 and 3-3. When the experimental and CFD results were examined, the maximum error was observed as 6.32%.
- It was found that 3 vane structures in 3-array affect the mean flow velocity by 27% and minimum flow velocity by 16% at 0.6 d.
- The flow velocities were investigated along with depth using the CFD and found that the mean velocity was reduced by 14–21% along the depth.
- Submerged vane structures balance the flow of water depth on the inner bank with the water depth on the outer bank within open channel flows. It reduced the flow velocity by directing the water depth and flow velocity from the outer bank to the inner bank.
- When the depth changes in sections are examined, it is observed that generally submerged vanes increase the water depth. In the sections, the water depth increased by about 6–8% in the V
_{1}case compared to the V_{0}case.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Odgaard, A.J.; Kennedy, J.F. Analysis of Sacramento River Bend Flows, and Development of a New Method for Bank Protection; The University of Iowa: Iowa City, IA, USA, 1982; Available online: http://www2.iihr.uiowa.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/IIHR241.pdf (accessed on 27 December 2022).
- Odgaard, A.J.; Kennedy, J.F. River-Bend Bank Protection by Submerged Vanes. J. Hydraul. Eng.
**1983**, 109, 1161–1173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Odgaard, A.J.; Lee, H.Y.E. Submerged Vanes for Flow Control and Bank Protection in Streams; Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research, the University of Iowa: Iowa City, IA, USA, 1984; Available online: https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US874929288 (accessed on 27 December 2022).
- Odgaard, A.J. Streambank Erosion along Two Rivers in Iowa. Water Resour. Res.
**1987**, 23, 1225–1236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Marelius, F.; Sinha, S.K. Experimental Investigation of Flow Past Submerged Vanes. J. Hydraul. Eng.
**1998**, 124, 542–545. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Voisin, A.; Townsend, R.D. Model Testing of Submerged Vanes in Strongly Curved Narrow Channel Bends. Can. J. Civ. Eng.
**2002**, 29, 37–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Gemici, E. Açık Kanallarda Batık Kanatlarla Akım Yönetimi; Erciyes Üniversity: Kayseri, Turkish, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Mohammadiun, S.; Salehi Neyshabouri, S.A.A.; Naser, G.; Vahabi, H. Numerical Investigation of Submerged Vane Effects on Flow Pattern in a 90° Junction of Straight and Bend Open Channels. Iran. J. Sci. Technol. Trans. Civ. Eng.
**2016**, 40, 349–365. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Fathi, A.; Zomorodian, S.M.A. Effect of Submerged Vanes on Scour Around a Bridge Abutment. KSCE J. Civ. Eng.
**2018**, 22, 2281–2289. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Kalathil, S.T.; Wuppukondur, A.; Balakrishnan, R.K.; Chandra, V. Control of Sediment Inflow into a Trapezoidal Intake Canal Using Submerged Vanes. Port Coast. Ocean. Eng.
**2018**, 144, 04018020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zarei, E.; Vaghefi, M.; Hashemi, S.S. Bed Topography Variations in Bend by Simultaneous Installation of Submerged Vanes and Single Bridge Pier. Arab. J. Geosci.
**2019**, 12, 178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Lake, R.W.; Shaeri, S.; Senevirathna, S.T.M.L.D. Design of Submerged Vane Matrices to Accompany a River Intake in Australia. J. Environ. Eng. Sci.
**2021**, 16, 58–65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Gumgum, F.; Cardoso, A.H. Optimizing the Desilting Efficiency of Submerged Vane Fields at Lateral Diversions. J. Hydraul. Eng.
**2022**, 149, 04022031. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bor, A. Experimental Investigation of 90° Intake Flow Patterns with and without Submerged Vanes under Sediment Feeding Conditions. Can. J. Civ. Eng.
**2021**, 49, 452–463. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Üneş, F. Investigation of Density Flow in Dam Reservoirs Using a Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model Including Coriolis Effect. Comput. Fluids
**2008**, 37, 1170–1192. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ünes, F. Prediction of Density Flow Plunging Depth in Dam Reservoirs: An Artificial Neural Network Approach. Clean
**2010**, 38, 296–308. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Üneş, F.; Demirci, M.; Varçin, H. 3-D Numerical Simulation of a Real Dam Reservoir: Thermal Stratified Flow. Springer Water
**2016**, 377–394. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Üneş, F.; Varçin, H. Investigation of Seasonal Thermal Flow in a Real Dam Reservoir Using 3-D Numerical Modeling. J. Hydrol. Hydromech.
**2015**, 63, 38–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Odgaard, A.J. River Training and Sediment Management with Submerged Vanes. River Train. Sediment Manag. Submerg. Vanes
**2009**. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Turhan, E.; Ozmen-Cagatay, H.; Kocaman, S. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Shock Wave Propagation Due to Dam-Break Over a Wet Channel. Pol. J. Environ. Stud.
**2019**, 28, 2877–2898. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ozmen-Cagatay, H.; Turhan, E.; Kocaman, S. An Experimental Investigation of Dam-Break Induced Flood Waves for Different Density Fluids. Ocean Eng.
**2022**, 243, 110227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Launder, B.E.; Spalding, D.B. Mathematical Models of Turbulence; Academic Press: New York, NY, USA, 1972. [Google Scholar]
- Kim, H.; Nanjundan, P.; Lee, Y.W. Numerical Study on the Sloshing Flows in a Prismatic Tank Using Natural Frequency of the Prismatic Shapes. Prog. Comput. Fluid Dyn.
**2021**, 21, 152–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Simsek, O.; Akoz, M.S.; Soydan, N.G. Numerical Validation of Open Channel Flow over a Curvilinear Broad-Crested Weir. Prog. Comput. Fluid Dyn.
**2016**, 16, 364–378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hirt, C.W.; Nichols, B.D. Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries. J. Comput. Phys.
**1981**, 39, 201–225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - ANSYS Analysis Systems Fluid Simulation Software. Available online: https://www.ansys.com/products/fluids (accessed on 27 December 2022).
- Salim, S.M.; Ariff, M.; Cheah, S.C. Wall Y+ Approach for Dealing with Turbulent Flows over a Wall Mounted Cube. Prog. Comput. Fluid Dyn.
**2010**, 10, 341–351. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Gerasimov, A. Modeling Turbulent Flows with Fluent. Available online: http://www.ae.metu.edu.tr/seminar/Turbulence_Seminar/Modelling_turbulent_flows_with_FLUENT.pdf (accessed on 27 December 2022).
- Unes, F.; Varcin, H. 3-D Real Dam Reservoir Model for Seasonal Thermal Density Flow. Environ. Eng. Manag. J.
**2017**, 16, 2009–2024. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Biswas, P.; Barbhuiya, A.K. Effect of Submerged Vane on Three Dimensional Flow Dynamics and Bed Morphology in River Bend. River Res. Appl.
**2019**, 35, 301–312. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

**Figure 1.**Experimental details for submerged vane (

**a**) “with vane” situation (

**b**) ADV device for velocity determination (

**c**) Flowmeter for channel flow.

**Figure 2.**Submerged vane experimental set-up for “with vane” situation: (

**a**) Channel top (plan) view, (

**b**) Cross section view, (

**c**) Section view.

**Figure 5.**Velocity vectoral representation at 0.6 h for: (

**a**) “without vane” situation, (

**b**) “with vanes” situation.

**Figure 6.**Velocity contour map at the water surface for: (

**a**) without vane situation, (

**b**) with vanes situation.

**Figure 11.**CFD -water level changes (m) in V

_{0}and V

_{1}case at (

**a**) 1-1, (

**b**) 2-2, (

**c**) 3-3 sections.

**Figure 12.**CFD -water depth changes (cm) in V

_{0}and V

_{1}case at (

**a**) 1-1, (

**b**) 2-2, (

**c**) 3-3 sections and (

**d**) % change for all sections.

**Figure 13.**Flow velocity change according to 1-1, 2-2 and 3-3 sections for behind the submerged vane.

**Figure 14.**CFD -Velocity changes (m/s) along the water depth (m) in V

_{0}case points at (

**a**) 1-1, (

**b**) 2-2, (

**c**) 3-3 sections and V

_{1}case points at (

**d**) 1-1, (

**e**) 2-2, (

**f**) 3-3 sections.

Q (m^{3} s^{−1}) | B (m) | d (m) | A (m^{2}) | T (m) | R_{h} (m) | V_{mean} (m s^{−1})(m s ^{−1}) | Fr |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

0.025 | 0.300 | 0.095 | 0.0285 | 0.490 | 0.058 | 0.900 | 0.94 |

Presented Study | Odgaard [19] | |
---|---|---|

Vane height/length (cm) | 10/10 | 7.4/15.2 |

Meander angle (°) | 30 | 90 |

Bend radius (m) | 3.60 | 11.89 |

Flow discharge (m^{3}/s) | 0.025 | 0.11–0.15 |

Mean velocity (m/s) | 0.900 | 0.396 |

Water surface slope | 0.0003 | 0.00064 |

Mean flow depth (cm) | 11 (V_{0} case), 12 (V_{1} case) | 17.4 and 18.2 |

Solver Set | Solver | Pressure Based |
---|---|---|

Space-Time | 3D, Unsteady | |

Model | Multiphase Model | VOF |

Viscous Model | k-ε | |

Phase | Primary Phase | Air |

Secondary Phase | water | |

Discretization | Pressure | Presto |

Momentum | Second order upwind | |

Pressure-Velocity Coupling | Method | Coupled |

Convergence Criterion | Residuals | 0.001 (Continuity) |

0.001 (Momentum) |

Section No | Point No | Location at x Direction (m) | Location at y Direction (m) | Experiment Results | Fluent CFD Results | Error (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1-1 | 1 | 1.10 | 0.247 | 0.96 | 0.97 | 0.97 |

2 | 1.10 | 0.272 | 0.98 | 0.97 | 1.08 | |

3 | 1.10 | 0.297 | 0.98 | 0.97 | 0.74 | |

4 | 1.10 | 0.322 | 0.98 | 0.97 | 0.67 | |

5 | 1.10 | 0.347 | 1.02 | 0.97 | 4.77 | |

6 | 1.10 | 0.372 | 1.02 | 0.99 | 2.53 | |

7 | 1.10 | 0.397 | 1.02 | 1.04 | 2.78 | |

8 | 1.10 | 0.422 | 1.04 | 1.10 | 5.89 | |

2-2 | 1 | 1.50 | 0.247 | 0.98 | 0.97 | 1.11 |

2 | 1.50 | 0.272 | 0.98 | 0.98 | 0.21 | |

3 | 1.50 | 0.297 | 0.97 | 0.97 | 0.08 | |

4 | 1.50 | 0.322 | 0.97 | 0.97 | 0.44 | |

5 | 1.50 | 0.347 | 1.01 | 0.97 | 3.68 | |

6 | 1.50 | 0.372 | 1.01 | 0.99 | 2.36 | |

7 | 1.50 | 0.397 | 1.03 | 1.05 | 1.45 | |

8 | 1.50 | 0.422 | 1.04 | 1.10 | 5.17 | |

3-3 | 1 | 1.70 | 0.247 | 0.96 | 0.96 | 0.90 |

2 | 1.70 | 0.272 | 0.97 | 0.97 | 0.42 | |

3 | 1.70 | 0.297 | 0.98 | 0.97 | 0.67 | |

4 | 1.70 | 0.322 | 0.99 | 0.97 | 1.44 | |

5 | 1.70 | 0.347 | 1.00 | 0.99 | 1.40 | |

6 | 1.70 | 0.372 | 1.02 | 1.01 | 0.72 | |

7 | 1.70 | 0.397 | 1.04 | 1.06 | 2.21 | |

8 | 1.70 | 0.422 | 1.06 | 1.07 | 0.60 |

**Table 5.**CFD and experimental velocity results for with vane situation at Sections 1-1, 2-2 and 3-3.

Section No | Point No | Location at x Direction (m) | Location at y Direction (m) | Experiment Results | Fluent CFD Results | Error (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1-1 | 1 | 1.10 | 0.247 | 1.10 | 1.07 | 2.81 |

2 | 1.10 | 0.272 | 1.07 | 1.03 | 4.08 | |

3 | 1.10 | 0.297 | 0.88 | 0.87 | 0.83 | |

4 | 1.10 | 0.322 | 0.98 | 0.98 | 0.91 | |

5 | 1.10 | 0.347 | 0.90 | 0.92 | 2.08 | |

6 | 1.10 | 0.372 | 1.01 | 1.04 | 3.28 | |

7 | 1.10 | 0.397 | 0.97 | 0.98 | 1.46 | |

8 | 1.10 | 0.422 | 1.10 | 1.11 | 0.63 | |

2-2 | 1 | 1.50 | 0.247 | 1.05 | 1.10 | 4.53 |

2 | 1.50 | 0.272 | 1.06 | 1.03 | 3.10 | |

3 | 1.50 | 0.297 | 0.91 | 0.89 | 2.31 | |

4 | 1.50 | 0.322 | 0.95 | 0.97 | 1.96 | |

5 | 1.50 | 0.347 | 0.92 | 0.90 | 1.93 | |

6 | 1.50 | 0.372 | 1.00 | 1.03 | 3.17 | |

7 | 1.50 | 0.397 | 0.97 | 0.96 | 0.71 | |

8 | 1.50 | 0.422 | 1.14 | 1.12 | 1.70 | |

3-3 | 1 | 1.70 | 0.247 | 1.08 | 1.10 | 2.35 |

2 | 1.70 | 0.272 | 1.03 | 1.03 | 0.32 | |

3 | 1.70 | 0.297 | 0.99 | 0.93 | 6.32 | |

4 | 1.70 | 0.322 | 0.94 | 0.93 | 0.75 | |

5 | 1.70 | 0.347 | 0.93 | 0.93 | 0.37 | |

6 | 1.70 | 0.372 | 0.95 | 0.98 | 2.77 | |

7 | 1.70 | 0.397 | 1.03 | 1.00 | 3.48 | |

8 | 1.70 | 0.422 | 1.05 | 1.11 | 5.79 |

Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content. |

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Taşar, B.; Üneş, F.; Gemici, E.; Zelenakova, M.
Experimental and Numerical Study on Flow Control Using 3-Array Submerged Vane in Laboratory Channel Bend. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 659.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040659

**AMA Style**

Taşar B, Üneş F, Gemici E, Zelenakova M.
Experimental and Numerical Study on Flow Control Using 3-Array Submerged Vane in Laboratory Channel Bend. *Water*. 2023; 15(4):659.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040659

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Taşar, Bestami, Fatih Üneş, Ercan Gemici, and Martina Zelenakova.
2023. "Experimental and Numerical Study on Flow Control Using 3-Array Submerged Vane in Laboratory Channel Bend" *Water* 15, no. 4: 659.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040659