# Feature Extraction Algorithm of Massive Rainstorm Debris Flow Based on Ecological Environment Telemetry

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Feature Extraction of Debris Flow in Two Massive Rainstorms

#### 2.1. Acquisition and Preprocessing of Massive Rainstorm and Debris Flow Data under Remote Sensing of Ecological Environment in Frequent Areas

#### 2.1.1. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Image Feature Data Acquisition of Rainstorm Debris Flow

#### 2.1.2. Data Preprocessing of Massive Rainstorm and Debris Flow

- (1)
- Radiation calibration

- (2)
- Atmospheric correction

- (3)
- Geometric correction

- (4)
- Image fusion

#### 2.2. Multilevel Feature Extraction of Large-Scale Rainstorm Debris Flow Image

#### 2.2.1. Spectral Feature Extraction of Mass Rainstorm Debris Flow Images Based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis

- (1)
- Select a certain number of hyperspectral remote sensing image samples of massive rainstorm, debris flow and appropriate kernel function.
- (2)
- Calculate the kernel matrix according to Formula (12) and Formula (14) to obtain $K$ and ${K}^{\prime}$.
- (3)
- Use Formula (15) to obtain ${K}^{\prime}$’s eigenvalue of $\mathsf{\ell}$ and $\partial $, and conduct $\partial $ normalization.
- (4)
- Obtain the characteristic values $\mathsf{\ell}$ in descending order, and select $m$’s eigenvectors corresponding to non-zero eigenvalues for use as principal components.
- (5)
- All spectral vectors in the feature space are projected onto the image corresponding to the first image $m$’s eigenvectors corresponding to three eigenvalues ${V}_{m}$; see Equation (16). Then, the obtained vector is restored to a two-dimensional image—the $m$’s principal component image—in order to complete the extraction of spectral characteristics of mass rainstorm debris flow images.

#### 2.2.2. Texture Feature Extraction of Mass Rainstorm Debris Flow Images Based on Gabor and Three-Patch Local Binary Patterns

- (1)
- For each input remote sensing image of mass rainstorm and debris flow, a Gabor filter is used to extract the texture features of the image in different directions.
- (2)
- For the remote sensing image of mass rainstorm and debris flow after Gabor filtering in all directions, the TPLBP value of each pixel in the image is calculated using Formula (22). Then, the image is divided into non-overlapping rectangular windows with the same size, and the frequency value of each TPLBP value in each rectangular window is calculated to produce a statistical histogram of $TPLBP(p)$.
- (3)
- The histograms of each rectangular window are connected with each other to form a feature vector of the remote sensing image of mass rainstorm and debris flow after filtering in a certain direction, and finally, the feature vectors in all directions are joined together to obtain the final spatial texture feature map of a remote sensing image of mass rainstorm and debris flow.

#### 2.2.3. Multilevel Feature Extraction of Large-Scale Rainstorm Debris Flow Image Based on Improved Convolution Neural Network Structure

## 3. Experimental Analysis

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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Name of Each Layer of the Network Model | Parameter Setting |
---|---|

Convolution layer 1 | Kernel_size = 5, stirde = 1, padding = 2 |

Pooled horizon 1 | Kernel_size = 3, stirde = 2 |

Convolution layer 2 | Kernel_size = 3, stirde = 1, padding = 1 |

Convolution layer 3 | Kernel_size = 3, stirde = 1, padding = 1 |

Convolution layer 4 | Kernel_size = 3, stirde = 1, padding = 1 |

Pooled horizon 2 | Kernel_size = 3, stirde = 2 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, J.; Zhao, Y.; He, N.; Gurkalo, F.
Feature Extraction Algorithm of Massive Rainstorm Debris Flow Based on Ecological Environment Telemetry. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 3807.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213807

**AMA Style**

Li J, Zhao Y, He N, Gurkalo F.
Feature Extraction Algorithm of Massive Rainstorm Debris Flow Based on Ecological Environment Telemetry. *Water*. 2023; 15(21):3807.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213807

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Jun, Yuandi Zhao, Na He, and Filip Gurkalo.
2023. "Feature Extraction Algorithm of Massive Rainstorm Debris Flow Based on Ecological Environment Telemetry" *Water* 15, no. 21: 3807.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213807