Next Article in Journal
BENFEP Spheres: New Porous Adsorbent Material for Arsenic Removal from Natural Waters
Previous Article in Journal
Distribution Characteristics of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus and Pollution Load Estimation of Sediments in Danjiangkou Reservoir, China
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Pivotal Issues of Water-Based Tourism in Worldwide Literature

Doctoral School of Economic and Regional Sciences, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
National School of Business and Management of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tangier 90000, Morocco
Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Culture Studies, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050040, Kazakhstan
Department of Geography and Ecology, Institute of Natural Sciences and Geography, Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan
Faculty of Urban and Regional Planning, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
Department of Sustainable Tourism, Institute of Rural Development and Sustainable Economy, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2023, 15(16), 2886;
Submission received: 28 June 2023 / Revised: 3 August 2023 / Accepted: 8 August 2023 / Published: 10 August 2023


Studies on water-based tourism have recently gained consistent attention from scholars. Its development relies on water segmentation of areas that could potentially become a tourist attraction or even an alternative source of renewable energy. In short, the ideas of water-based tourism, as presented theoretically, conceptually, and practically by scholars, have been widespread; however, studies to map the core issues in the literature have not yet been undertaken. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the progress of water-based tourism literature around the world. Furthermore, we used the scientometric and literature review approaches, along with the assistance of two qualitative applications, NVivo and VOSViewer, as tools for visualizing the code of 106 documents in Scopus. Our core findings showed that water-based tourism studies have undergone rather substantial developments in the last decade. Moreover, our study also noted that there were eight pivotal issues that had been identified, classified as follows: “areas”, “water”, “economic”, “value”, “tourist”, “quality”, “development”, “management”, and “resources”. We believe that this water-based tourism segmentation provides potential opportunities for regions that have water resources or water utilization as their main developable asset, and that water segmentation provides great potential development for community economic growth, increased tourist visits, and a contribution to local income. Therefore, it is necessary to request that the authorities engage other agencies in order to support the best economic and practical realities associated with procuring resources, directly or indirectly. This paper also introduces insightful future directions for water-based tourism studies.

1. Introduction

In the last few decades, studies on water-based tourism settings have consistency been popular in various journals [1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. In this study, water-based tourism refer to areas or territories that have water as a major potential location as a suitable recreational spot and tourism destination [8]. Others have explained the term as referring to a tourist area with water-related recreational activities [9]. In addition, water-based tourism is a zone that has direct contact with water and has evolved into a recreational getaway that contributes to regional income [10].
Consequently, the presence of water-based tourism provides potential for the tourism industry as an entire sector, and which may yield prospects for new market segments to lure tourists, generate economic value and regional products, and improve people’s welfare [11]. This kind of tourism is an interesting object for the tourism sector, and water-related features must be stimulated so that their presence can be identified [5]. With this in mind, water-based tourism refers to a place where water is a primary selling point for tourist recreation and where it enhances the economy of a region.
On the other hand, some scholars have pointed out that the literature of water-based tourism does not only focus on tourist recreation purpose, but examines these places as locations for sporting activities, such as canoeing, rowing, surfing, and others [12,13,14,15]. Other studies are related to health therapy and medical treatment [16,17], and spa products [18]. In addition, the existence of water-based tourism also provides great opportunities for algae growth in water bodies [19]. Therefore, studies on water-based tourism are marked by their various approaches and case characteristics. With this situation, the existence of these locations is determined to be crucial for the growth and development of tourism and the sustainability of water as the main source of income. In the context of this study, it is crucial to acknowledge the significance of water, both freshwater and saltwater, as it intersects with various Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Tourism, being a key economic driver, relies on access to clean water while simultaneously contributing to water-related challenges. Understanding this intricate relationship between tourism and water is vital in the pursuit of sustainable practices and the achievement of the SDGs [20].
The presence of water-based tourism provides a positive value for environmental sustainability, considering that the supply of water is so significant for life; however, it also causes a negative impact on the environment, including excess and water shortages, which threaten to become brittle if the water discharge begins to decrease or even overflow [21]. In line with that, studies on risk and disaster management of water-based tourism also require consideration for the long-term sustainability of its ecosystem [22]. As a result, the existence of water-based tourism development provides opportunities for environmental conservation and greater availability of water networks [23].
Given that the flow of water varies seasonally, there is a need to maintain the decline of water in order to ensure that tourists do not shift to other recreational activities [24]. Others argue for the need to investigate the cultural characteristics of environmental protection in water-based tourism destinations [4] due to the fact that water-based tourism has become a potential new alternative source of renewable energy for water-based electricity infrastructure [25]. To maintain the area’s viability, it is necessary to balance tourism for economic purposes with the ecological considerations [26] in line with protecting natural ecosystems and creating economic value for existing resources [27]. Nonetheless, adopting a holistic vision for a region with outstanding water resources is necessary [28].
Among the various purposes and goals of water-based tourism studies, managers of water-based tourist destinations require the tools to mitigate potential conflicts between residents and visitors [29]. Thus, the implementation of water-based tourism must run optimally, as mentioned by Hasan and Neela [30], who recognized that the image of water-based tourist destinations will become increasingly known in the general public given the number of tourists visiting and the diversity of experiences gained through electronic communication. In addition, Mimbs et al. [29] claimed the increasing demand for water-based recreation should also be accompanied by the need for recreational site managers to consider the best way to satisfy visitors and the economic interests of the community from such visits.
Thus, Morgan [31] argues that the usability of water-based tourism can be assessed through a review of the water-based adventure activities of tourists. Furthermore, Stein et al. [32] stated that visitors could take advantage of the utilities (facilities and services) provided and use them to learn about water-based tourism. Mahayu [33] mentioned that managers should also consider the availability of attributes such as a security person, food and beverage suppliers, transportation modes, parking spaces, toilets, garbage places, information centers, worship places, ATMs, fuel filling stations, tourist destination promotion tools, tour guide, electricity, and cell phone signal power. This is in line with Mondok et al. [34] who stated that water tourism must provide the most basic infrastructure conditions such as toilets, provision of boats, ship facilities, and equipment related to water tourism.
There are several scholars who explored the existence of water-based tourism destinations and their contribution to the improvement of the economy of local communities and the income of a region in theoretical, conceptual, and practical terms [9,35,36]. Furthermore, the potential of such water-based tourism is observed from various perspectives, such as the shift in the tourism economy, the support of several stakeholders, strategic tools, and learning media. For example, Brunacini et al. [37] observed the economic shift of local communities, in the Great Lakes of Michigan, to invest in the development of water-based tourism, and this was supported by the strong interest of the region’s key stakeholders in supporting its development [38,39,40,41]. Folgado-Fernández et al. [11] explored that local communities, in Extremadura, Spain, have a strong incentive to develop water-based tourism destinations, which is considered a strategic tool for the protection of water ecosystems and the conservation of the environment in its region. Then, Busarova [35] examined the existence of the potential of the rich waterways in the Republic of Karelia, as a result of which Pastors and local communities took steps to develop it as a water-based tourist destination to become one of the alternative destinations that contribute to the regional income and become a medium of learning about the provision of water resources and its suppliers. Furthermore, Kapsch [42] studied the Lake District of Mecklenburg, where people’s livelihoods rely on water-based tourism landscapes, such as Kano, so there is a need for protection by local authorities to ensure the economy of the community continues in the future. Egan et al. [36] noted that in New Zealand, marine-based recreation has the potential to generate income for coastal communities, despite cases of mine spills, which do not stop tourists from relaxing and only restrict fishermen.
While we acknowledge the importance of the water-based tourism issues from previous studies, in which many scholars provide an understanding related to the potential of water-based tourism theoretically, conceptually, and practically. However, we found that there are still gaps in the existing body of knowledge and studies, and we have not found (outside of our knowledge) a completed study to provide clarification and classification of the direction of study from the literature of water-based tourism. Therefore, to fill the gap left by such past studies and address this issue, this study is presented inclusively to understand the contribution of water-based tourism literature to tourism governance and development through a literature review with the Scopus database as the primary source. Scopus was selected because it covers numerous high-quality documents not covered by other indexes, such as documents with a large number of references and citations, and Scopus covers practically all Web of Science publications [43]. In addition, Scopus provides the high-quality document mobility profiles of comprehensive scholars, and this database has large-scale data sources in research assessments that might be displayed in bibliometric landscapes and network visualizations [44].
This paper is divided into four chapters. The first chapter is an introduction that contains information about the meaning of water-based tourism and state-of-the-art studies, followed by the methodology section for the data summaries collected and the analytical tools used. Moreover, the result section and discussion refer to data processing findings with coding cases and an in-depth discussion about mapping and a further understanding of water-based tourism. Finally, the conclusion and recommendation section summarize the findings and advice for future studies. This paper will be a valuable compilation of knowledge on the subject and may benefit a wider audience.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Data Collecting

In this paper, the Scopus database was used as a source of literature on water-based tourism, as it is the source with the largest body of literature in the world as a result of scholars’ publications and has an adequate peer-review system, so the documents collected are high quality [44,45]. Numerous systematic literature reviews and bibliometric analyses have been conducted in tourism research, using Scopus as the primary database for data collection [46,47,48]. Additionally, utilizing key points of the Scopus dataset can provide visualizations, including bibliographic records, which include figures and shapes [49]. We discovered 106 documents that discussed water-based tourism from its inception in 1981 on Scopus until the end of May 2023. Compiling annual publications until the end of May 2023 allowed us to highlight and provide a comparative analysis of changes and developments in the landscape of the number of documents published on Scopus, which might influence the result of the overlay visualization and query of existing key points. The data consist of 106 documents in which there are no annual records, no specialization, no duplicate documents discovered, and no documents deleted, thereby preserving the objective value of the documents obtained and preventing selection bias. Therefore, we presented the collected data from the query with key sources of “water-based” AND “tourism”—along with the subject type as all subjects, the document type as all types, and the publication stage type as all stages. Furthermore, the keywords are all shown, the country or territory is all covered, and the source type is all source type. Thus, all categories of documents are executed as meeting the requirements, as all types of literature are pertinent to the research objectives. This emphasizes that the evaluation based on abstract extraction encompasses the entire document. Then, full-text analysis was performed on documents that fulfilled the primary full-text criteria. Therefore, all the documents covered can potentially advance the literature on water-based tourism. By using analytical tools, all 106 documents are reviewed and compared comprehensively.

2.2. Analysis Tools

In the subsequent phase, we used a literature framework, including scientometrics, for classifying documents suitable for discussion and that can serve as representations for other articles with similar studies. For this, it was determined that VOSViewer 1.6.18 version software is required to maximize the scientometric visualization derived from the volume of scientific data [50,51]. Using VOSViewer can also facilitate comprehension of studies that have co-occurring terms [52]. Others employed the VOSViewer to obtain automated maps such as network assignment categorization, and consequently, this tool is more clear than other bibliometric tools [53]; tools such as VOSviewer are notable for being both technically robust and relatively user-friendly [54]. Furthermore, VOSViewer delivers graphical representations and bibliometric maps with simple functionality and that are easy to interpret [55]. This case, while easy to interpret, offers a comprehensive selection of visual analysis maps of the data in various disciplines. It connects via co-citation links, co-occurrence, citation, and bibliographic coupling [55]. In the VOSViewer tool, we used the network menu to analyze the keyword point of view by network visualization, the density visualization to monitor the cohesion between keywords’ co-occurrence and limitations related to the main study, and overlay visualizations to pinpoint core words or terms dominant in annual coverage; however, these menus adjust the sub-sections involved [50,55].
In addition, the second tool used was NVivo by Lumivero (formerly by QSR International, Burlington, MA, USA), which allowed us to capture this literature-building discussion [56]. It also reflects the visualization of key components when coding results are collected, allowing them to be automatically clustered into sub-sections based on the main topic [57,58,59]. The NVivo tool begins with the entry of document files, followed by automatic coding to generate a separate author’s position to make code to collect key points of the primary topic, such as water-based tourism. The final results of the coding then reveal the importance of the sub-sections, with several significant sub-topics providing support for the represented topics. Therefore, the author discusses the findings by referencing relevant literature based on the chart hierarchy menu’s clustering. The results of the hierarchy chart are then applied to the concept map to visualize the significant sub-sections of each accumulated issue [59]. On the other menu, word cloud refers to the rapidly expressed words or phrases that appear most often in these sources, where the data present visualizations in the form of word pictures [59].

3. Results

3.1. Annual Number of Water-Based Tourism Document Publication

The annual document distribution about water-based tourism is shown in Figure 1. Documents that were published between 1981 and 2023 on the Scopus database were selected. As a result, during the years of publication that have been studied, water-based tourism studies still exist in recent years, with no more than three documents published annually from 1981 to 2009. The development of water-based tourism studies saw an increase from four to six articles between 2010 and 2012, but the following three years saw a decline in publication documents. Between 2016 and 2022, the number of publications on water-based tourism studies rose to a peak in 2020 with 12 publications. In 2021, the number of documents decreased. The findings show that the study of water-based tourism over the past decade has escalated among scholars. In addition, the annual trend of publications also includes 2023. Four documents were detected in the Scopus database at the end of May. Therefore, these papers serve as basic information for seeing the current development compared to previous years; as a result, these earlier documents are already more than a third of the total documents in 2022. This points out that the trend of literature on water-based tourism may continue to grow at the end of 2023 and in the coming years.

3.2. Author Analysis and Total Document

The literature on water-based tourism has presented scholars with the treasure of its development. In Table 1, fourteen authors have at least two articles related to the study of water-based tourism, and other authors only produce one document. Furthermore, the visual display of the grid on the table indicates that each author has successfully published collaborative writing work in a document. However, the average amount generated is only two documents. This shows that the study of water-based tourism still needs to produce more publication documents and collaborative authorship so that each author has a number of publications that, as a consequence, can be a reference for future scholars.

3.3. Citation per Document Analysis

Table 2 shows that there are ten documents on the study of water-based tourism with the most citations among the 106 documents gathered, with different types of documents. This result indicates that articles are the type of document that produce the most significant number of citations. There are six documents that are articles, and three occupy the top three positions in the number of citations. Primavera [60] was the document publication with the most significant number of citations, with 349 citations, far from Edwards and Clark [61], with 158 citations. Furthermore, the document type of book chapter ranks fourth with Jennings’s [3] document having a total of 75 citations and is the only book chapter of document type that enters the top ten citations. Following this, Burgin and Hardiman [62] have a total of 59 documents cited, with the review document type occupying fifth place of the total document type, and there are two other review document types that are in the ten documents with the most citations. Thus, these findings indicate that water-based tourism studies have supplemented the treasure of document types, so no one document dominates the study of a single document type.

3.4. Subject Area Distribution

Table 3 shows the scope of the water-based tourism study in a total of 106 documents summarized, and the number of documents per subject area does not represent one document. However, some documents have as many specific subject areas as other subject areas. As a result, “Environmental Science” was the dominant subject area in the study of water-based tourism with 49 documents (24.9%), followed by “Social Science” with 34 documents (17.3%). Further, the subject area of “Business, Management, and Accounting” obtained a total of 32 documents (16.2%). Also, some distribution of the study of water-based tourism was seen in the subject area “Earth and Planetary Sciences” with 23 documents (11.7%). The field of “Agricultural and Biological Sciences” was in a total of 13 documents (6.6%). Subject areas from “Engineering” were in 12 documents (6.1%), followed by “Energy” with a total of 8 documents (4.1%), as well as “Computer Science”, “Economics, Econometrics, and Finance”, and “Medicine”, which were in 5 documents each (2.5%).

3.5. Publisher Distribution

Based on Table 4, it can be seen that the “IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science” is the most common source for water-based tourism studies, citing four documents (3.77%), followed by three documents from the “Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites” (2.83%). In addition, other publisher sources generate an average of two documents (1.88%), whereas other publishers produce only one document in their publications. It suggests that documents on the study of water-based tourism are published more frequently by a conference publisher than by journal publishers, even though only one of the top ten sources is a conference publisher.

3.6. Document Contribution by Type Distribution

The estimate for the number of documents based on type is shown in Figure 2. The most significant contribution to the study of water-based tourism is by the “article” type of document, with a total of 67 articles (63.2%). Followed by the “Conference Paper”, with 23 documents (21.7%). Next, “Book chapter” was the third highest contributor with a total of five documents (7.5%) and “Review” with four documents (3.8%). In addition, “Book”, “Conference review”, “Note”, and “Short review” each have one document (0.9%). This shows that the outstanding scientific contribution to the treasure of water-based tourism studies is obtained from the “Article” type of document.
On the other hand, the contribution of science production by scholars can be evaluated based on how much an institution or affiliation is producing knowledge treasures, such as the study of water-based tourism depicted in Figure 3, where the Universitas Sains Malaysia and the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Science (Hungary) produce the most documentation relative to other research institutions. However, each institution generates two documents on average. This suggests that the study of water-based tourism is not only discussed by academics from mainland European affiliates, but also by countries in Southeast Asia, which are also contributing to global knowledge about water-based tourism.

3.7. Document Contribution by Affiliation

This section is used to identify the most influential affiliate contributors to the total number of scientific documents published on water-based tourism. It is noteworthy to point out that institutions were selected if they have at least two publication documents.

3.8. Countries Distribution

Some countries contributed publications on water-based tourism worldwide. Figure 4 shows that there are at least two top countries with the highest publication contribution, with the countries producing the most documents obtained by Indonesia and the United States of America, each with 13 documents, followed by China with a total of 10 documents, and Australia with a total of 9 documents, followed by Spain with 7 documents, Malaysia with 6 documents, and South Africa with 5 documents. In addition, the countries that produced four documents were Canada, Germany, Hungary, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Then, the Czech Republic, New Zealand, and Romania each produced three publication documents, as well as France, Portugal and Turkey with two publication documents, respectively.
In Figure 5, which displays the network of county co-occurrences by document, it is shown that Indonesia and the United States are the most dominant countries for document publication. There are significant points of view that four networks were found, along with color. As a result, Australia is the leading country where most collaboration documents are published with other countries, acting as a bridge for other countries to work together. Additionally, Hungary also collaborated with Poland and Romania, and Lithuania. In short, South Africa, Nigeria, and Germany collaborate, in deference to the Red Part, in which Argentina and Taiwan do not collaborate on the documents but are linked to Australia. In this case, Canada and Iceland were linked to the United States, and was just linked to China.

3.9. Network, Overlay, and Density Visualization

Figure 6 showed a network visualization of the water-based tourism literature, where each line node is connected to another, and the line nodes have their represented colors, which connect the most significant keywords of that network and reflect a number of line nodes. Therefore, the most significant line node is “tourism”, followed by “tourism development”, both of these line nodes are interconnected with other keywords such as “environmental protection”, “ecotourism”, and “climate change”. In this case, it is indicated that the literature on water-based tourism is related to how to protect the environment from climate change in developing tourism destinations. Furthermore, further line nodes of network visualization were selected such as “economics”, “agriculture”, and “sustainable development”. It is determined that the study of water-based tourism relates to the sustainability situation of a region and improves the economy and development of the agricultural sector related to “water management”.
Figure 7 represents a number of line nodes that have become a trend yearly, in which the line nodes are in solid blue, indicating that keywords have appeared since 2010, the line nodes with specific colors are increasingly faded blue-and-white, indicate that a keyword transitions along yearly, and finally the line that is red to deep-red color represent line nodes that are the latest trends in water-based tourism studies such as “Climate Change”, “Forest”, “Land Use”, “Environmental Protection”, and “Livelihood”, which have become strong keywords in the last five years in the water-based tourism literature. However, it is shown that a yearly shift leads to protecting destinations against climate change by presenting a water-based tourism concept.
Figure 8 provided an understanding of the density visualization of each line node, which is strong in this study, namely “tourism”, “tourism development”, “ecotourism”, “environmental protection”, and “recreation”, as well as “climate change”. As a result, these words with dense contrasting colors that appear indicate that these words have the depth of a research text related to water-based tourism.

3.10. Word Frequencies

As shown in Figure 9, a word cloud refers to the frequency of a single word set or a specific word that appears in a source, where the important points of the textual data generated from small to large word sizes are visualized. We identified the fifty dominant keywords through a reviewed cloud word analysis of the title and content of the entire document gathered. The larger the word in the word cloud, the higher the frequency of its occurrence in the coverage. The most frequently used keywords, in Figure 9, are “water” (2010), “tourism” (1288), and “areas” (628), which are closely related to the topic of water-based tourism. Some other keywords link and complement studies such as “quality” (600), “value” (528), “recreation” (482), “economic” (474), “natural” (429), “activities” (414), “lake” (396), “resources” (368), “sites” (340), etc. In the end, it is reflected that “water” is the keyword with the highest single-word frequency and the most occurrences repeated in the 106 documents encountered in the diverse literature on water-based tourism.

3.11. Pivotal Issue of Water-Based Tourism Studies

Figure 10 shows a hierarchical diagram representing each word, which depends on a number of coding literature for the themes and sub-themes compiled. In this case, core studies on water-based tourism literature have been discovered in Figure 9. As a result, there is a significant point to be highlighted that nine queries proportion as the main representative of 106 documents linked to water-based tourism literature, such as “areas”, “water”, “economic”, “value”, “tourist”, “quality”, “development”, “management”, and “resources”. Each of these queries has sub-queries representing the information about the pivotal part of the main query.

4. Discussion

4.1. Pivotal Issues of Areas and Water

Water-based tourism has been linked to the terms of areas and water, and scholars have studied various sub-queries. In terms of areas, there are sub-queries such as “urban areas”, “coastal areas”, “residential areas”, “protected areas”, “recreational areas”, etc. This shows the relationship of these terms with water-based tourism studies. As such, Breitung and Lu [23] stated that a legacy of tourism-related water resources flows and impacts several urban areas. Others, Hasan and Neela [30] explored coastal areas, which have an impact on improving the community’s quality of life and can create jobs for local communities due to the mobility of their economic activities. Furthermore, Kuś et al. [22] revealed that residential areas benefit the community’s economy, water supply for agriculture and industry, and flood protection. Additionally, Kabil et al. [27] noted that the tourism industry makes use of the potential of protected areas as local economic opportunities and in the interests of conserving and maintaining sustainable water supplies. Thus, Tikunov et al. [69] said that water-based tourism is not only a recreational area but also an opportunity for local community activities to strengthen social networks, which, according to Minciu et al. [70], has an impact on the economy and infrastructure.
On the other hand, this study, “water-based tourism”, is connected to water, in which there are several sub-terms such as “water supply”, “coastal water”, “water resources”, “water sport”, “water protection”, etc. As for this term, Aguirre et al. [71] found that water provides protection and supply for the environment now and in the future and also has an impact on flooding if not appropriately managed. Kuś et al. [22] said that water supply is vital for agriculture or industry, and flood protection. Oladele et al. [72] identified coastal water as a destination with the fastest-growing socio-economic benefits. In line with Hermawan et al. [73], there is potential for coastal areas and open water to develop as marine tourism locations that can provide socio-economic benefits to the local people. Folgado-Fernández et al. [11] discussed that tourism, which has large water resources, has an impact on the development of assembling resources related to water and its protection. In line with Winde and Stoch’s [74] study, a rich supply of water resources will provide sufficient economic needs and income for a region. As Downward et al. [12] mentioned, water resources can be used for water sports activities, and this potential makes them an economic resource for local communities. However, according to Ľoch et al. [75], it is necessary to pay attention to the vulnerability of water quality so that water protection is needed to identify which tourism potential needs protection from dangerous activities and those that have the potential to pollute water quality. In addition, Aguirre et al. [71], water security and water governance is a critical concern because water is a vital and limited resource that is important for ecological processes, human survival, and economic and social development, requiring collaborative and coordinated work of all relevant actors [76].

4.2. Pivotal Issues of Economic, Value, and Tourist

In studies on water-based tourism, there are several related terms, such as “economic”, “value”, and “tourist”. In terms of economics, the terms are “economic value”, “economic contribution, “economic innovations”, “economic assets”, and “economic impact”. As for this term, Kabil et al. [27] declared that the development of water-based tourism provides an increase in economic value and its contribution to local, regional, and national levels. Furthermore, Porto and Espinola [77] noticed that in order to prevent inequality in local people’s income regarding tourism development, further creative innovation is needed so as to increase the tourism value chain and economic growth from various innovations. Brunacini et al. [37] proved that the community and stakeholders are enthusiastic about revitalizing the seaside and investing in the economy sector, which would be used for recreation and tourism visits. Ryan et al. [78] affirmed that the development of water recreation increases the value of economic assets, in this case, by helping the welfare of the local community in the long term. In line with Kaprová’s [9] statement, water destinations will economically impact local communities. Recent research was conducted to assess the viability of solar water heating (SWH) systems for sustainable tourism in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB), Pakistan. The researchers focused on a tourist resort as the base case for their investigation. The study considered essential parameters such as hot water demand, solar irradiance, and economic feasibility to gauge the potential of SWH systems [79].
On the other hand, the term of economic value is also found in the value sub-query. In addition, other terms such “cultural value”, “environmental value”, “heritage value”, and “spiritual value” are found. For example, Ryan et al. [78] emphasized that several water recreation locations have cultural values that must be preserved, so it is necessary to conserve the pollution that pollutes the water and the surrounding environment. This is in line with Yusof [4], who observed that exemplary culture is needed for environmental protection for tourists in water-based tourist destinations.
The term “tourist” is linked to water-based tourism. As a result, there are points of view such as “tourist attraction”, “tourist experience”, “tourist behaviors”, “tourist trauma”, and “tourist marketing”. In this case, Csobán et al. [17] expressed that to increase tourist attractiveness, adequate infrastructure and accessibility are needed in recreation areas and their maintenance. In addition, Heggie et al. [66] stated that prevention techniques needed to be developed to prevent negative risk levels from occurring from the tourist experience of their activities, such as damage to the traffic lanes at the location. On the other hand, Hasan and Neela [30] found that there are reviews of tourist behavior based on their experiences visiting tourist destinations. For instance, Wegner et al. [80] observed that the impact of damage to underwater ecosystems due to high-intensity rowing activities has implications of disrupting biodiversity, so there is a need for tourist behavior to maintain the continuity of tourism in inland waterways. Therefore, tourist marketing is believed to be the most important part of distributing water-based recreational activities and rules, be they trips, experiences, or locations, that are promoted through the communication media they market [30].

4.3. Pivotal Issues of Quality, Development, Resources, and Management

The study of water-based tourism has a relationship with various issues; scholars have used the term to support the studies they are working on. Among these terms are “quality”, “development”, “resources”, and “management”. In terms of “quality”, there are several important sub-terms that contain the meaning of each study, such as “water quality”, “environmental quality”, “air quality standards”, “water quality standards”, “monitoring water quality”, etc. As a result, Khan et al. [81] stated that the current water quality continues to decline due to natural and anthropogenic causes, such as sediment load, which is determined by turbidity. Furthermore, Egan et al. [36] noted that water quality can decrease due to pollution arising from incidents, such as marine oil spills, which has a negative impact on water quality and water recreation users. Therefore, Minciu et al. [70] confirmed that good environmental quality is needed to improve the economy and the lives of citizens. As explained by Thi Hong Hanh [82], air pollution will worsen the atmosphere, so the canal-side highway can be used to control air quality standards. Additionally, Wade [83] determined that it is not difficult to maintain high water quality standards in controlled recreational facilities. Investing in a cleaner like chlorine or bromine is more than worth it. In addition, Khan et al. [81] argued that water quality monitoring is crucial for socio-economic development, biodiversity conservation, and tourism.
On the other hand, there are some sub-queries to be highlighted in terms of development. There are “tourism product development”, “historical development”, developed learning facilities, etc. In this case, Campón-Cerro et al. [84] argue that, in line with the demands for the experience and welfare of modern tourists, new ideas are needed for the development of tourism products using water in non-consumptive ways. On the other hand, Budruk et al. [85] noted that water-based tours are also developed as historical learning facilities, such as museums and visitor centers. This is in line with Porto and Espinola [77], where in recent times, the development of natural resources for tourism has become material and developed learning facilities for unidirectional sites and the promotion of various cultural activities. Garcia and Cater [86] presented a novel approach in their study, suggesting a multi-stakeholder structure for implementing place-based ocean literacy. Their proposal aims to contribute significantly to the enhancement of global ocean awareness and aligns with the aspirations of promoting better understanding and preservation of oceans.
Therefore, in terms of resources, there are several important terms related to water-based tourism, such as “human resources”, “economic resources”, “energy resources”, etc. In this line, Nurhidayati et al. [87] revealed that human resources are needed to manage aquatic recreational resources. Thus, Gunawan [88] said there is a connection between providing opportunities for community economic resources and the activity of tourist trips and attitudes towards recreation and tourism. Thus, this is in line with the strengthening of resources stated by Kuś et al. [22], which states that water resources have an impact on becoming a renewable energy resource and becoming a water storage for survival.
Lastly, there are pivotal points regarding the term of management and its sub-queries, such as “management agencies”, “competent managers”, “tourism managers”, etc. In the development of water-based recreation, Mimbs et al. [29] state that the support of management agencies is needed to provide understanding to the population and obtain local support regarding the practice of efforts to develop destinations. Thus, Thi Hong Hanh [82] affirmed that practical training in conservation and capacity building includes training local residents to become competent managers. Thus, Kuś et al. [22] support tourism managers who can encourage open communication with the community to support mutual welfare because the efficiency and effectiveness of managing water recreation depend on the knowledge and understanding of a tourism manager in dealing with various problems in water-based tourist destinations.

5. Conclusions

Studies on water-based tourism currently have the attention of scholars; therefore, there needs to be a detailed map and study of the direction to provide an essential understanding of water-based tourism. This study provides a comprehensive view of the development of water-based tourism studies from year to year. The significance of this issue has been increasing over the last decade, and some current scholars have cited it. This study covered various subjects, and “Environmental Science” is the most widely distributed subject of the publication. Various publishers found sources for the distribution of this literature, and “IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science” is the most significant publisher contributing to the literature on water-based tourism. Additionally, document distribution was found in various documents, and “Article” is the most popular for distribution by document type. In addition, several universities were concerned about water-based tourism, including “The University of Sains Malaysia” and “The Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Science”, which are famous institutions in this literature publication. Additionally, Indonesia and the United States are the countries that distribute document publications the most. Furthermore, network, overlay, and density visualization found several pinpoints of keywords that significantly impact water-based tourism, and most words detected used word frequencies. In addition, the critical point to be highlighted in the scope of water-based tourism studies that has extended to several pivotal issues, such as “areas”, “water”, “economic”, “value”, “tourist”, “quality”, “development”, “management”, and “resources” along with respective sub-queries.
The practical implications of this paper imply that water-based tourism can enhance local communities’ quality of life due to the mobility of economic activities. It also offers opportunities for the sustainability of ecosystems, particularly for water supply, and will become an alternative energy source for recreation innovation and climate protection in the future. In addition, this paper also pointed out the contribution of academia, in which there are essential core topics that need to be formulated in future studies related to economic and resource development. In addition, this paper contributes to understanding essential issues in the study of water-based tourism, one of which is that water-based tourism allows a new alternative in tourism recreational options and is a potential area for tourist learning media. Furthermore, the literature on water-based tourism has a particular contribution in terms of maintaining the environment and agriculture, from the supply of water resources, local community economic and business development, regional income, and tourist learning media, as well as a social perspective in terms of collaboration with stakeholders in developing tourism destinations and the potential risk management of water-based tourism.
This study has limitations because the primary source used is the Scopus database, so documents from other databases have not been used. Therefore, future research requires using other databases, such as the Web of Science, for more insightful knowledge and understanding of the water-based tourism literature. Additionally, this paper also uses two tools, NVivo and VOSViewer; however, for future research, it will be able to enhance its studies with various tools that can capture other diversity and other perspectives from the worldwide literature on water-based tourism. Additionally, for future direction on water-based tourism, we requested more study and discussion from the perspective of resource availability in supporting the development of water-based tourism, considering that core resource studies are still limited compared to other viewpoints. Also, studies from a regulation perspective still lack examination by past scholars. Therefore, these issues can provide a thorough understanding of the ideas collected and completed by previous studies.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, A.F.R. and Y.E.A.; methodology, A.F.R. and M.A.P.; software, A.F.R. and P.L.; validation, B.B., S.M. and Y.E.A.; formal analysis, A.F.R. and L.D.D.; investigation, B.B. and Y.I.; resources, A.F.R. and Y.E.A.; data curation, L.D.D. and M.A.P.; writing—original draft preparation, A.F.R. and Y.E.A.; writing—review and editing, B.B. and M.K.; visualization, P.L. and Y.I.; supervision, L.D.D. and Y.E.A.; project administration, A.F.R. and M.A.P.; and funding acquisition, Y.E.A. and L.D.D. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Data developed in this study will be made available upon request to the corresponding authors.


This research was supported by the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the Doctoral School of Economic and Regional Sciences (MATE), Hungary.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Becker, C.; Peuker-Burkle, E. Water-based tourism on the German Mosel. Ber. Zur Dtsch. Landeskd. 1989, 63, 491–510. [Google Scholar]
  2. Adekoya, A. Demand for Water-Based Recreational Activities and Tourism Sites in Rural Nigeria. Environ. Educ. Inf. 1991, 10, 235–244. [Google Scholar]
  3. Jennings, G. Water-Based Tourism, Sport, Leisure, and Recreation Experiences. In Water-Based Tourism, Sport, Leisure, and Recreation Experiences; Taylor and Francis: Mount Gravatt, Australia, 2007; pp. 1–20. ISBN 978-113634929-4; 075066181X; 978-075066181-2. [Google Scholar]
  4. Yusof, N. Environmental Protection Culture-Perspective of Tourists in a Water-Based Tourist Destination. In Proceedings of the Current Issues in Hospitality and Tourism Research and Innovations—Proceedings of the International Hospitality and Tourism Conference, IHTC, London, UK, 3–5 September 2012; Universiti Sains Malaysia: George, Malaysia, 2012; pp. 503–507. [Google Scholar]
  5. Nazaruddin, D.A.; Khan, M.M.A.; Fazil, S.R.; Zulkarnain, Z.; Raman, K. Geological Assessment of Water-Based Tourism Sites in Jeli District, Kelantan, Malaysia. In Springer Water; Springer Nature: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2017; pp. 173–195. [Google Scholar]
  6. Wirakusuma, R.M. Water Based Tourism and Recreation Challenges in West Java Province. In Proceedings of the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Bandung, Indonesia, 8 August 2017; Institute of Physics Publishing: Bandung, Indonesia, 2018; Volume 145. [Google Scholar]
  7. Mácová, K. Economic Effects of Water-Related Tourism Around the Vltava River Cascade. In Proceedings of the Public Recreation and Landscape Protection—With Environment Hand in Hand—Proceedings of the 13th Conference, Křtiny, Czech Republic, 9–10 May 2022; Fialová, J., Ed.; Mendel University: Brno, Czech Republic, 2022; pp. 106–109. [Google Scholar]
  8. Vasvári, M.; Boda, J.; Dávid, L.; Bujdosó, Z. Water-Based Tourism as Reflected in Visitors to Hungary’s Lakes. Geoj. Tour. Geosites 2015, 15, 91–103. [Google Scholar]
  9. Kaprová, K. Water-Related Recreation around the Vltava River and Its Economic Impacts: A Complex Approach. In Proceedings of the Public Recreation and Landscape Protection—With Sense Hand in Hand, Křtiny, Czech Republic, 13–15 May 2019; Mendel University in Brno: Prague 6, Czech Republic, 2020; pp. 567–571. [Google Scholar]
  10. Furgała-Selezniow, G.; Jankun-Woźnicka, M.; Woźnicki, P.; Cai, X.; Erdei, T.; Boromisza, Z. Trends in Lakeshore Zone Development: A Comparison of Polish and Hungarian Lakes over 30-Year Period. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Folgado-Fernández, J.A.; Di-Clemente, E.; Hernández-Mogollón, J.M.; Campón-Cerro, A.M. Water Tourism: A New Strategy for the Sustainable Management of Water-Based Ecosystems and Landscapes in Extremadura (Spain). Land 2019, 8, 2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  12. Downward, P.; Rasciute, S.; Muniz, C. Exploring the Contribution of Activity Sports Tourism to Same-Day Visit Expenditure and Duration. J. Sport Tour. 2020, 24, 111–126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Morar, C.; Pop, A.-C. Water, Tourism and Sport. A Conceptual Approach. Geoj. Tour. Geosites 2016, 18, 249–258. [Google Scholar]
  14. Liu, L.-W.; Huang, H.-C.; Chang, H.-M. An Investigation of Involvement in Serious Leisure, Recreation Specialization, and Sport Tourism of Diving Participants in Taiwan. In Proceedings of the ICIMTR 2012—2012 International Conference on Innovation, Management and Technology Research, Beishiliao, Taiwan, 21–22 May 2012; pp. 220–223. [Google Scholar]
  15. Fernandes, G.; Costa, A. Fluvial Waters and Their Functions for Tourism and Recreation. Recreational and Sport Uses for Rivers and Lakes at Serra Da Estrela (Portugal). In Proceedings of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies; Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH: Guarda, Portugal, 2022; Volume 293, pp. 213–222. [Google Scholar]
  16. Gaman, G.; Răcăşan, B.S.; Potra, A.C. Tourism and Polycentric Development Based on Health and Recreational Tourism Supply. Geoj. Tour. Geosites 2017, 19, 35–49. [Google Scholar]
  17. Csobán, K.; Szőllős-Tóth, A.; Sánta, Á.K.; Molnár, C.; Pető, K.; Dávid, L.D. Assessment of the Tourism Sector in a Hungarian Spa Town: A Case-Study of Hajdúszoboszló. Geoj. Tour. Geosites 2022, 45, 1543–1551. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Bachinger, M.; Rau, H. Forest-Based Health Tourism as a Tool for Promoting Sustainability: A Stakeholder-Based Analysis of Supply-Side Factors in Tourism Product Development. In CSR, Sustainability, Ethics and Governance; Springer Nature: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany; University of Applied Forest Sciences: Rottenburg, Germany, 2019; pp. 87–104. ISBN 21967075. [Google Scholar]
  19. Favot, E.J.; Holeton, C.; DeSellas, A.M.; Paterson, A.M. Cyanobacterial Blooms in Ontario, Canada: Continued Increase in Reports through the 21st Century. Lake Reserv. Manag. 2023, 39, 1–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Moyle, B.D.; Weaver, D.B.; Gössling, S.; McLennan, C.; Hadinejad, A. Are Water-Centric Themes in Sustainable Tourism Research Congruent with the UN Sustainable Development Goals? J. Sustain. Tour. 2022, 30, 1821–1836. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Li, Z.; Li, H.; An, X. Assessment of the Sustainable of Water-Based Tourism on the Basis of Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets. Ekoloji 2019, 28, 259–265. [Google Scholar]
  22. Kuś, S.; Sierka, E.; Jelonek, I.; Jelonek, Z. Synthetic Analysis of Thematic Studies towards Determining the Recreational Potential of Anthropogenic Reservoirs. Environ. Ecol. Res. 2022, 10, 355–369. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Breitung, W.; Lu, J. Suzhou’s Water Grid as Urban Heritage and Tourism Resource: An Urban Morphology Approach to a Chinese City. J. Herit. Tour. 2017, 12, 251–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Bristow, R.S.; Jenkins, I. Travel Behaviour Substitution for a White-Water Canoe Race Influenced by Climate Induced Stream Flow. Leis. Loisir 2018, 42, 25–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Başaran, S.T.; Gökçekuş, H.; Orhon, D.; Sözen, S. Autonomous Desalination for Improving Resilience and Sustainability of Water Management in North Cyprus. Desalin. Water Treat. 2020, 177, 283–289. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Zhu, K.; Zhou, Q.; Cheng, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Li, T.; Yan, X.; Alimov, A.; Farmanov, E.; Dávid, L.D. Regional Sustainability: Pressures and Responses of Tourism Economy and Ecological Environment in the Yangtze River Basin, China. Front. Ecol. Evol. 2023, 11, 1148868. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Kabil, M.; Alayan, R.; Lakner, Z.; Dávid, L.D. Enhancing Regional Tourism Development in the Protected Areas Using the Total Economic Value Approach. Forests 2022, 13, 727. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Mozes, T.A. From the Paradise of Beit Shean Valley to the Contested Landscape of the Valley of Springs: Water Amenities, Environmental Justice, and Sustainable Development. In Proceedings of the Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation; Springer Nature: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany; Technion, Israel Institute of Technology: Haifa, Israel, 2022; pp. 29–38. [Google Scholar]
  29. Mimbs, B.P.; Boley, B.B.; Bowker, J.M.; Woosnam, K.M.; Green, G.T. Importance-Performance Analysis of Residents’ and Tourists’ Preferences for Water-Based Recreation in the Southeastern United States. J. Outdoor Recreat. Tour. 2020, 31, 100324. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Hasan, M.K.; Neela, N.M. Adventure Tourists’ Electronic Word-of-Mouth (e-WOM) Intention: The Effect of Water-Based Adventure Experience, Grandiose Narcissism, and Self-Presentation. Tour. Hosp. Res. 2022, 22, 284–298. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Morgan, D.J. Risk, Competence and Adventure Tourists: Applying the Adventure Experience Paradigm to White-Water Rafters. Leis. Loisir 2001, 26, 2–127. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Stein, T.V.; Denny, C.B.; Pennisi, L.A. Using Visitors’ Motivations to Provide Learning Opportunities at Water-Based Recreation Areas. J. Sustain. Tour. 2003, 11, 404–425. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Mahayu, A.G. Perception Study about Visitors Related to Development of Rowo Bayu Attractions in Kecamatan Songgon Banyuwangi. In Proceedings of the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Malang, Indonesia, 6–7 March 2017; Institute of Physics Publishing: Malang, Indonesia, 2017; Volume 70. [Google Scholar]
  34. Mondok, A.; Kóródi, M.; Kárpáti, J.; Pallás, I.E.; Gogo, F.C.A.; Dávid, L.D. The Contradictious Expectations of the Actors of the Tourism Organizational and Consumer Market in Sustainable Destination Development. GeoJournal Tour. Geosites 2023, 46, 200–207. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Busarova, V. Recreation Potential and Water-Based Recreation Resources in Karelia (Example of the Zaonezhje Area). In Proceedings of the Vide, Tehnologija, Resursi—Environment, Technology, Resources; Rezekne Higher Education Institution: Rēzekne, Latvia, 2009; Volume 2, pp. 51–55. [Google Scholar]
  36. Egan, A.L.; Rolfe, J.; Cassells, S.; Chilvers, B.L. Potential Changes in the Recreational Use Value for Coastal Bay of Plenty, New Zealand Due to Oil Spills: A Combined Approach of the Travel Cost and Contingent Behaviour Methods. Ocean. Coast. Manag. 2022, 228, 106306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Brunacini, J.; Goralnik, L.; Rutty, M.; Keller, E. Industrial Transitions in Michigan: Stakeholder Perspectives on Water Resources Restoration and Community Vibrancy. Soc. Nat. Resour. 2023, 36, 928–946. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Dávid, L. A Vásárhelyi Terv Turisztikai Lehet\Hoségei. Gazdálkodás Sci. J. Agric. Econ. 2004, 48, 86–94. [Google Scholar]
  39. Duda-Gromada, K.; Bujdosó, Z.; David, L. Lakes, Reservoirs and Regional Development through Some Examples in Poland and Hungary. GeoJournal Tour. Geosites 2010, 5, 16–23. [Google Scholar]
  40. David, L.; Baros, Z.; Patkos, C.; Tuohino, A. Lake Tourism and Global Climate Change: An Integrative Approach Based on Finnish and Hungarian Case-Studies. Carpathian J. Earth Environ. Sci. 2012, 7, 121–136. [Google Scholar]
  41. Tóth, G.; Dávid, L.; Bujdosó, Z. A hazai folyók által érintett települések társadalmi-gazdasági vizsgálata [Socio-economic analysis of the municipalities affected by domestic rivers]. Foldrajzi Kozlemenyek 2010, 134, 189–202. (In Hungarian) [Google Scholar]
  42. Kapsch, A.E. Tourism in the Mecklenburg Lake District. Geogr. Rundsch. 2019, 71, 34–37. [Google Scholar]
  43. Visser, M.; van Eck, N.J.; Waltman, L. Large-Scale Comparison of Bibliographic Data Sources: Scopus, Web of Science, Dimensions, Crossref, and Microsoft Academic. Quant. Sci. Stud. 2021, 2, 20–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Baas, J.; Schotten, M.; Plume, A.; Côté, G.; Karimi, R. Scopus as a Curated, High-Quality Bibliometric Data Source for Academic Research in Quantitative Science Studies. Quant. Sci. Stud. 2020, 1, 377–386. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Kumpulainen, M.; Seppänen, M. Combining Web of Science and Scopus Datasets in Citation-Based Literature Study. Scientometrics 2022, 127, 5613–5631. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. El Archi, Y.; Benbba, B.; Zhu, K.; El Andaloussi, Z.; Pataki, L.; Dávid, L.D. Mapping the Nexus between Sustainability and Digitalization in Tourist Destinations: A Bibliometric Analysis. Sustainability 2023, 15, 9717. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. El Archi, Y.; Benbba, B.; Nizamatdinova, Z.; Issakov, Y.; Vargáné, G.I.; Dávid, L.D. Systematic Literature Review Analysing Smart Tourism Destinations in Context of Sustainable Development: Current Applications and Future Directions. Sustainability 2023, 15, 5086. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Archi, Y.E.; Benbba, B. The Applications of Technology Acceptance Models in Tourism and Hospitality Research: A Systematic Literature Review. J. Environ. Manag. Tour. 2023, 14, 379–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Burnham, J.F. Scopus Database: A Review. Biomed. Digit. Libr. 2006, 3, 1. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  50. Donthu, N.; Kumar, S.; Mukherjee, D.; Pandey, N.; Lim, W.M. How to Conduct a Bibliometric Analysis: An Overview and Guidelines. J. Bus. Res. 2021, 133, 285–296. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Moral-Muñoz, J.A.; Herrera-Viedma, E.; Santisteban-Espejo, A.; Cobo, M.J.; Herrera-Viedma, E.; Santisteban-Espejo, A.; Cobo, M.J. Software Tools for Conducting Bibliometric Analysis in Science: An up- to-Date Review. Prof. Inf. Ción 2020, 29, e290103. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  52. Sajovic, I.; Boh Podgornik, B. Bibliometric Analysis of Visualizations in Computer Graphics: A Study. SAGE Open 2022, 12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  53. Markscheffel, B.; Schröter, F. Comparison of Two Science Mapping Tools Based on Software Technical Evaluation and Bibliometric Case Studies. Collnet J. Scientometr. Inf. Manag. 2021, 15, 365–396. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Kirby, A. Exploratory Bibliometrics: Using VOSviewer as a Preliminary Research Tool. Publications 2023, 11, 10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Van Eck, N.J.; Waltman, L. Software Survey: VOSviewer, a Computer Program for Bibliometric Mapping. Scientometrics 2010, 84, 523–538. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  56. Dalkin, S.; Forster, N.; Hodgson, P.; Lhussier, M.; Carr, S.M. Using Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS; NVivo) to Assist in the Complex Process of Realist Theory Generation, Refinement and Testing. Int. J. Soc. Res. Methodol. 2021, 24, 123–134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Mortelmans, D. Analyzing Qualitative Data Using NVivo. In The Palgrave Handbook of Methods for Media Policy Research; Palgrave Macmillan: Cham, Switzerland, 2019; pp. 435–450. ISBN 978-3-030-16064-7. [Google Scholar]
  58. Jackson, K.; Bazeley, P. Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo, 3rd ed.; SAGE Publications Ltd.: Melbourne, Australia, 2019; ISBN 978-1-15264-49993-1. [Google Scholar]
  59. O’neill, M.; Booth, S.; Lamb, J. Using NvivoTM for Literature Reviews: The Eight Step Pedagogy (N7+1). Qual. Rep. 2018, 23, 24–39. [Google Scholar]
  60. Primavera, J.H. Overcoming the Impacts of Aquaculture on the Coastal Zone. Ocean. Coast. Manag. 2006, 49, 531–545. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Edwards, A.J.; Clark, S. Coral Transplantation: A Useful Management Tool or Misguided Meddling? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 1999, 37, 474–487. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Burgin, S.; Hardiman, N. The Direct Physical, Chemical and Biotic Impacts on Australian Coastal Waters Due to Recreational Boating. Biodivers. Conserv. 2011, 20, 683–701. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Rubio-Maya, C.; Uche-Marcuello, J.; Martínez-Gracia, A.; Bayod-Rújula, A.A. Design Optimization of a Polygeneration Plant Fuelled by Natural Gas and Renewable Energy Sources. Appl. Energy 2011, 88, 449–457. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Zingone, A.; Escalera, L.; Aligizaki, K.; Fernández-Tejedor, M.; Ismael, A.; Montresor, M.; Mozetič, P.; Taş, S.; Totti, C. Toxic Marine Microalgae and Noxious Blooms in the Mediterranean Sea: A Contribution to the Global HAB Status Report. Harmful Algae 2021, 102, 101843. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Hardiman, N.; Burgin, S. Recreational Impacts on the Fauna of Australian Coastal Marine Ecosystems. J. Environ. Manag. 2010, 91, 2096–2108. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  66. Heggie, T.W.; Heggie, T.M.; Kliewer, C. Recreational Travel Fatalities in US National Parks. J. Travel Med. 2008, 15, 404–411. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  67. Puustinen, J.; Pouta, E.; Neuvonena, M.; Sievänen, T. Visits to National Parks and the Provision of Natural and Man-Made Recreation and Tourism Resources. J. Ecotourism 2009, 8, 18–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Yusoff, F.M.; Shariff, M.; Gopinath, N. Diversity of Malaysian Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manag. 2006, 9, 119–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. Tikunov, V.S.; Belozerov, V.S.; Antipov, S.O. Evaluation of Tourist Activities and Destination Attraction Capacity Using Geotags. Kartogr. Geoinform. 2019, 18, 34–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Minciu, M.; Berar, F.A.; Dobrea, R.C.; Dima, C. New Approaches of Managers in the Context of the Vuca World; Mendel University: Brno, Czech Republic, 2020; ISBN 9788075097156. [Google Scholar]
  71. Aguirre, K.A.; Paredes Cuervo, D. Water Safety and Water Governance: A Scientometric Review. Sustainability 2023, 15, 7164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Oladele, A.H.; Digun-Aweto, O.; Van Der Merwe, P. Potentials of Coasta Land Marine to Urism in Nigeria. Tour. Mar. Environ. 2018, 13, 165–173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. Hermawan, S.; Mihardja, E.; Pambudi, D.A.; Jason, J. Hydrodynamic Model Optimization for Marine Tourism Development Suitability in Vicinity of Poso Regency Coastal Area, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Sustainability 2023, 15, 3150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  74. Winde, F.; Stoch, E.J. Threats and Opportunities for Post-Closure Development in Dolomitic Gold-Mining Areas of the West Rand and Far West Rand (South Africa—A Hydraulic View Part 2: Opportunities. Water SA 2010, 36, 75–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  75. Ľoch, B.; Puškárová, P.; Róth, B.; Marcin, M.; Šándorová, K. Impact of Water Quality on Water Based Activities in Hornád River Basin. In Proceedings of the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM, Sofia, Bulgaria, 29 June–5 July 2017; International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference: Košice, Slovakia, 2017; Volume 17, pp. 507–514. [Google Scholar]
  76. Cheng, Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhou, Q.; El Archi, Y.; Kabil, M.; Remenyik, B.; Dávid, L.D. Tourism Ecological Efficiency and Sustainable Development in the Hanjiang River Basin: A Super-Efficiency Slacks-Based Measure Model Study. Sustainability 2023, 15, 6159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Porto, N.; Espinola, N. Labor Income Inequalities and Tourism Development in Argentina: A Regional Approach. Tour. Econ. 2019, 25, 1265–1285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Ryan, C.; Huimin, G.; Chon, K. Tourism to Polluted Lakes: Issues for Tourists and the Industry. an Empirical Analysis of Four Chinese Lakes. J. Sustain. Tour. 2010, 18, 595–614. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Naveed Arif, M.; Waqas, A.; Ahmed Butt, F.; Mahmood, M.; Hussain Khoja, A.; Ali, M.; Ullah, K.; Mujtaba, M.A.; Kalam, M.A. Techno-Economic Assessment of Solar Water Heating Systems for Sustainable Tourism in Northern Pakistan. Alex. Eng. J. 2022, 61, 5485–5499. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. Wegner, B.; Meyer, N.; Wolter, C. Paddling Impacts on Aquatic Macrophytes in Inland Waterways. J. Nat. Conserv. 2023, 72, 126331. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Khan, R.M.; Salehi, B.; Mahdianpari, M.; Mohammadimanesh, F. Water Quality Monitoring over Finger Lakes Region Using Sentinel-2 Imagery on Google Earth Engine Cloud Computing Platform. In Proceedings of the ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences; Copernicus GmbH: New York, NY, USA, 2021; Volume 5, pp. 279–283. [Google Scholar]
  82. Thi Hong Hanh, V. Canal-Side Highway in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam—Issues of Urban Cultural Conservation and Tourism Development. GeoJournal 2006, 66, 165–186. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Wade, A. Water, Health, Recreation and Tourism. Water Sci. Technol. 1989, 21, 297–302. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  84. Campón-Cerro, A.M.; Di-Clemente, E.; Hernández-Mogollón, J.M.; Folgado-Fernández, J.A. Healthy Water-Based Tourism Experiences: Their Contribution to Quality of Life, Satisfaction and Loyalty. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1961. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  85. Budruk, M.; Wilhem Stanis, S.A.; Schneider, I.E.; Heisey, J.J. Crowding and Experience-Use History: A Study of the Moderating Effect of Place Attachment among Water-Based Recreationists. Environ. Manag. 2008, 41, 528–537. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Garcia, O.; Cater, C. Life below Water; Challenges for Tourism Partnerships in Achieving Ocean Literacy. J. Sustain. Tour. 2022, 30, 2428–2447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  87. Nurhidayati, E.; Buchori, I.; Fariz, T.R. Cellular Automata Modelling in Predicting the Development of Settlement Areas, A Case Study in the Eastern District of Pontianak Waterfront City. In Proceedings of the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Surabaya, Indonesia, 18 October 2016; Institute of Physics Publishing: Semarang, Indonesia, 2017; Volume 79. [Google Scholar]
  88. Gunawan, M.P. Domestic Tourism in Indonesia. Tour. Recreat. Res. 1996, 21, 65–69. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Yearly publication.
Figure 1. Yearly publication.
Water 15 02886 g001
Figure 2. Type of documents by percentages and frequencies.
Figure 2. Type of documents by percentages and frequencies.
Water 15 02886 g002
Figure 3. Institution affiliation by document publication.
Figure 3. Institution affiliation by document publication.
Water 15 02886 g003
Figure 4. Territory distribution and country network by document publication.
Figure 4. Territory distribution and country network by document publication.
Water 15 02886 g004
Figure 5. Bibliographic coupling for countries by document.
Figure 5. Bibliographic coupling for countries by document.
Water 15 02886 g005
Figure 6. Network visualization of water-based tourism literature worldwide.
Figure 6. Network visualization of water-based tourism literature worldwide.
Water 15 02886 g006
Figure 7. Overlay visualization of water-based tourism literature worldwide.
Figure 7. Overlay visualization of water-based tourism literature worldwide.
Water 15 02886 g007
Figure 8. Density visualization of water-based tourism literature worldwide.
Figure 8. Density visualization of water-based tourism literature worldwide.
Water 15 02886 g008
Figure 9. Word cloud of water-based tourism studies.
Figure 9. Word cloud of water-based tourism studies.
Water 15 02886 g009
Figure 10. Key points of water-based tourism literature.
Figure 10. Key points of water-based tourism literature.
Water 15 02886 g010
Table 1. Authors with the most publication documents produced.
Table 1. Authors with the most publication documents produced.
Bujdosó, Z.2Water 15 02886 i001
Burgin, S.2
Campón-Cerro, A.M.2
Di-Clemente, E.2
Dimmock, K.2
Folgado-Fernández, J.A.2
Handaru, A.W.2
Hardiman, N.2
Hernández-Mogollón, J.M.2
Jennings, G.2
Mardiyati, U.2
Mukhtar, S.2
Nindito, M.2
Yusof, N.2
Note: network visualization refers to the authors co-occurrences, in which there is a collaboration with eight authors at most.
Table 2. Ten authors with the most citations along with type of document.
Table 2. Ten authors with the most citations along with type of document.
Primavera [60]Article349Water 15 02886 i002
Edwards and Clark [61]Article158
Rubio-Maya et al. [63]Article154
Jennings [3]Book Chapter75
Burgin and Hardiman [62]Review59
Zingone et al. [64]Article57
Hardiman and Burgin [65]Review43
Heggie et al. [66]Article40
Puustinen et al. [67]Article35
Yusoff et al. [68]Review33
Note: network visualization refers to 10 authors with high citation per document on water-based tourism studies.
Table 3. The most common subjects in water-based tourism literature.
Table 3. The most common subjects in water-based tourism literature.
Subject AreaDocumentPercentage
Environmental Science4924.9%
Social Sciences3417.3%
Business, Management and Accounting3216.2%
Earth and Planetary Sciences2311.7%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences136.6%
Computer Science52.5%
Economics, Econometrics and Finance52.5%
Other 115.6%
Table 4. Sources distribution by document analysis.
Table 4. Sources distribution by document analysis.
IOP Conference Series Earth And Environmental Science43.77%
Geojournal Of Tourism And Geosites32.83%
Advances In Science Technology And Innovation21.88%
Annals Of Tourism Research21.88%
International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health21.88%
Journal Of Environmental Management21.88%
Journal Of Sustainable Tourism21.88%
Leisure Loisir21.88%
Ocean And Coastal Management21.88%
Sustainability Switzerland 21.88%
Tourism In Marine Environments21.88%
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Rahmat, A.F.; El Archi, Y.; Putra, M.A.; Benbba, B.; Mominov, S.; Liudmila, P.; Issakov, Y.; Kabil, M.; Dávid, L.D. Pivotal Issues of Water-Based Tourism in Worldwide Literature. Water 2023, 15, 2886.

AMA Style

Rahmat AF, El Archi Y, Putra MA, Benbba B, Mominov S, Liudmila P, Issakov Y, Kabil M, Dávid LD. Pivotal Issues of Water-Based Tourism in Worldwide Literature. Water. 2023; 15(16):2886.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahmat, Al Fauzi, Youssef El Archi, Muhammad Ade Putra, Brahim Benbba, Serik Mominov, Pavlichenko Liudmila, Yerlan Issakov, Moaaz Kabil, and Lóránt Dénes Dávid. 2023. "Pivotal Issues of Water-Based Tourism in Worldwide Literature" Water 15, no. 16: 2886.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop