Assessing and Mitigating Ice-Jam Flood Hazards and Risks: A European Perspective
2. Flood Risk and the European Union’s Floods Directive
“The purpose of [the European Union’s Floods] Directive is to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks, aiming at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the [European] Community.”; Chapter 1, Article 1.
- Reduce flood risk by maintaining and increasing the existing water catchment retention capacity, eliminating, or avoiding an increase in land development in areas of particular flood risk, determining the conditions for the possible development of areas protected by embankments, and avoiding growth and determining development conditions in areas with a low probability of flood occurrence.
- Reducing the existing flood risk by limiting development in floodplains and reducing the vulnerability of facilities and communities to flood risk.
- Improving the flood risk management systems which require implementation of forecasting and issuance of warnings about meteorological and hydrological hazards, making the responses of people, companies, and public institutions to floods more effective, increasing resilience to return to preflood states quickly, requiring effective postflood analyses, building legal and financial instruments that discourage or encourage certain behaviors to increase flood safety, and building educational programs to improve awareness and knowledge of the sources of flood hazards and risks.
3. Changes to Flood Risk and Ice-Jam Flood Risk Due to the Future Climate
4. Potential of Including Ice-Jam Flood Hazards and Risks in the EU Floods Directive
4.1. Norwegian Perspective
4.2. Swedish Perspective
4.3. Finnish Perspective
4.4. German Perspective
4.5. Polish Perspective
5. Ice-Jam Flood Risk Mitigation Measures
5.1. Artificial Ice-Cover Breakage
5.2. Flood Warning under Ice Conditions
5.3. Ice-Jam Flood Forecasting
6. Technical Advances in River Ice Research
6.1. Particle Tracking Velocimetry
6.2. Ice Characterization of a Hanging Dam
- firm accumulations—sounder must be driven into the ice by force.
- compact accumulations—sounder remains stationary within the slush.
- loose accumulations—sounder penetrates the accumulation driven by its own weight.
6.3. Design of New Ice-Control Structure
6.4. River Ice Detection Using Optical and Radar Satellite Imagery in Tandem
- Sentinel-1, which is a radar sensor using C-band frequency in two polarization modes (VV/VH). Two satellites (A and B), launched in 2014 and 2015, provided ~2-day revisit times across all of Europe with a spatial resolution of ~10 m and a swath width of ~250 km for the GRD product in IW mode
- Sentinel-2, which is an optical sensor with 13 spectral bands. Two satellites (A and B), launched in 2015 and 2017, provided ~5-day revisit times across Europe to acquire imagery with a spatial resolution of 10, 20, and 60 m with a swath width of ~290 km. Imagery was delivered in UTM grid cuts with overlap.
6.5. Stochastic Model to Assess Ice-Jam Flood Hazards
- upstream water flow Q (Figure 19a) represented by an extreme-value distribution of the flows at instantaneous water level maxima during ice-jam events,
- volume of inflowing ice accumulating in the ice jam Vice (Figure 19b), which is a function of Q, with the scatter represented by a confidence band within which random variables are selected,
- downstream water level W (Figure 19c), which is a function of the upstream discharge.
- Location of the ice-jam lodgment x (Figure 19d), which is represented by a stepped uniform distribution to capture the predisposition of ice jamming in some stretches over others.
6.6. Monitoring with UAVs
- safely measuring flows under covers of loose ice accumulations,
- incorporating near-ground (trail cameras), aerial (drones), and space-borne (satellites) remote sensing imagery into integrated monitoring systems for quick response to ice-jam flood hazard developments, and
- real-time monitoring of ice-cover elevations as a proxy for ice-thickness measurements.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Klaudia Borowiak||Welcoming remarks from the Dean of Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, Poznan University of Life Sciences|
|Mateusz Zagata||Polish perspectives on mitigating ice-jam flood risk along the Oder River|
|Michael Kögel, Fabian Möldner & Dirk Carstensen||A river with ice floods - the Oder river|
|Iwona Pinskwar & Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz||Changes in flood risk in the Odra and Vistula river basins|
|Marika Kornaś-Dynia & Włodzimierz Marszelewski||Monitoring of ice phenomena on the Warta River in Poznań over a 60-year period (1961–2020)|
|Maik Renner & Michael Roers||Challenges for operational flood warning under ice-jam conditions at the Oder River in Brandenburg|
|T. Niedzielski, M. Halicki, J. Remisz, G. Walusiak & M. Witek||Applying satellite altimetry over the Odra River to issue hydrological predictions at virtual stations|
|Michał Kubicki||River Ice Detection on High Definition Optical and Radar Satellite Sensors|
|Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt||Advances in ice-jam flood forecasting, risk assessment and mitigation|
|Bogusław Pawłowski||Causes of the February 2021 ice jams in the upper Włocławek reservoir|
|Knut Alfredsen||Ice flood risk reduction in Norway|
|David Gustafsson||Ice-jam flood risk in Sweden|
|Tomasz Kolerski||Assessment of the ice jam severity based on the numerical models results|
|Adam Choryński, Iwona Pinskwar & Zbigniew Kundzewicz||Flood risk reduction in Poland|
|Maksymilian Rybacki||Modeling flood scenarios from ice jams using MIKE 21 Flow Model FM|
|Ewelina Szałkiewicz||Determination of the probability of exceedance of maximum ice-jam water states|
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Lindenschmidt, K.-E.; Alfredsen, K.; Carstensen, D.; Choryński, A.; Gustafsson, D.; Halicki, M.; Hentschel, B.; Karjalainen, N.; Kögel, M.; Kolerski, T.; et al. Assessing and Mitigating Ice-Jam Flood Hazards and Risks: A European Perspective. Water 2023, 15, 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010076
Lindenschmidt K-E, Alfredsen K, Carstensen D, Choryński A, Gustafsson D, Halicki M, Hentschel B, Karjalainen N, Kögel M, Kolerski T, et al. Assessing and Mitigating Ice-Jam Flood Hazards and Risks: A European Perspective. Water. 2023; 15(1):76. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010076Chicago/Turabian Style
Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich, Knut Alfredsen, Dirk Carstensen, Adam Choryński, David Gustafsson, Michał Halicki, Bernd Hentschel, Niina Karjalainen, Michael Kögel, Tomasz Kolerski, and et al. 2023. "Assessing and Mitigating Ice-Jam Flood Hazards and Risks: A European Perspective" Water 15, no. 1: 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010076