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Article

Risk Assessment of Nitrate Pollution in the Shallow Groundwater of the Mihe Alluvial–Diluvial Fan Based on a DEA Model

by 1,2, 2,3,*, 4, 4, 2,3,* and 1,2
1
School of Water Conservancy and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China
2
Water Resource Research Institute of Shandong Province, Jinan 250014, China
3
Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Environment of Shandong Province, Jinan 250014, China
4
Haihe River, Huaihe River and Xiaoqinghe River Basin Water Conservancy Management and Service Center of Shandong Province, Jinan 250100, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rahim Barzegar and Ata Allah Nadiri
Water 2022, 14(9), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091360
Received: 15 March 2022 / Revised: 15 April 2022 / Accepted: 20 April 2022 / Published: 22 April 2022
Affected by excessive fertilizer application and livestock breeding, the problem of nitrate pollution in the groundwater in the Mihe alluvial–diluvial fan area is becoming increasingly prominent, which poses a great threat to human production and life. Given this, the risk of nitrate pollution in the shallow groundwater of the Mihe alluvial–diluvial fan is evaluated by introducing a data envelopment analysis (DEA) method. Using this model, 28 groundwater sampling points are selected as the decision-making unit (DMU); the nitrogen and pesticide application rate, livestock and poultry stock, groundwater burial depth, aquifer water abundance, and vegetable planting area are taken as the model input; and the nitrate content is taken as the model output to quantitatively calculate the pollution risk index to form a spatial distribution map of pollution risk. The calculation using the model shows that the average pollution risk index of the study area is 0.382, the spatial variation is 1.12, the pollution risk index gradually decreases from south to north, and agricultural planting and livestock and poultry breeding are the main pollution sources. The calculation of nitrate pollution risk using this model not only enriches the nitrate pollution evaluation model but also provides a basis for further implementing the action of reducing fertilizer use by increasing its efficiency and strengthening the prevention of agricultural diffused pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrate pollution; pollution risk index; DEA; Mihe alluvial–diluvial fan nitrate pollution; pollution risk index; DEA; Mihe alluvial–diluvial fan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Q.; Li, F.; Zhu, A.; Zhang, X.; Chen, H.; Sun, T. Risk Assessment of Nitrate Pollution in the Shallow Groundwater of the Mihe Alluvial–Diluvial Fan Based on a DEA Model. Water 2022, 14, 1360. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091360

AMA Style

Zhao Q, Li F, Zhu A, Zhang X, Chen H, Sun T. Risk Assessment of Nitrate Pollution in the Shallow Groundwater of the Mihe Alluvial–Diluvial Fan Based on a DEA Model. Water. 2022; 14(9):1360. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091360

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Qi, Fulin Li, Aihua Zhu, Xiaoming Zhang, Huawei Chen, and Tingting Sun. 2022. "Risk Assessment of Nitrate Pollution in the Shallow Groundwater of the Mihe Alluvial–Diluvial Fan Based on a DEA Model" Water 14, no. 9: 1360. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091360

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