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Review

The Presence of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens in Residential Buildings: A Literature Review

1
Environmental Health, College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
2
College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Bucci, Gino Naclerio and Zhiliang Zhu
Water 2022, 14(7), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071129
Received: 14 February 2022 / Revised: 18 March 2022 / Accepted: 25 March 2022 / Published: 1 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Microorganisms in Aquatic Environments)
Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPP) are microorganisms that are native to the plumbing environment and that present an emerging infectious disease problem. They share characteristics, such as disinfectant resistance, thermal tolerance, and biofilm formation. The colonisation of domestic water systems presents an elevated health risk for immune-compromised individuals who receive healthcare at home. The literature that has identified the previously described OPPPs (Aeromonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Helicobacter spp., Legionella spp., Methylobacterium spp., Mycobacteria spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Stenotrophomonas spp.) in residential drinking water systems were systematically reviewed. By applying the Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines, 214 studies were identified from the Scopus and Web of Science databases, which included 30 clinical case investigations. Tap components and showerheads were the most frequently identified sources of OPPPs. Sixty-four of these studies detected additional clinically relevant pathogens that are not classified as OPPPs in these reservoirs. There was considerable variation in the detection methods, which included traditional culturing and molecular approaches. These identified studies demonstrate that the current drinking water treatment methods are ineffective against many waterborne pathogens. It is critical that, as at-home healthcare services continue to be promoted, we understand the emergent risks that are posed by OPPPs in residential drinking water. Future research is needed in order to provide consistent data on the prevalence of OPPPs in residential water, and on the incidence of waterborne homecare-associated infections. This will enable the identification of the contributing risk factors, and the development of effective controls. View Full-Text
Keywords: opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens; drinking water; biofilm; disinfectant resistance; antimicrobial resistance opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens; drinking water; biofilm; disinfectant resistance; antimicrobial resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hayward, C.; Ross, K.E.; Brown, M.H.; Bentham, R.; Whiley, H. The Presence of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens in Residential Buildings: A Literature Review. Water 2022, 14, 1129. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071129

AMA Style

Hayward C, Ross KE, Brown MH, Bentham R, Whiley H. The Presence of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens in Residential Buildings: A Literature Review. Water. 2022; 14(7):1129. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071129

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hayward, Claire, Kirstin E. Ross, Melissa H. Brown, Richard Bentham, and Harriet Whiley. 2022. "The Presence of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens in Residential Buildings: A Literature Review" Water 14, no. 7: 1129. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071129

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