Analysis of the Evolution Pattern and Driving Mechanism of Lakes in the Northern Ningxia Yellow Diversion Irrigation Area
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Overview of the Study Area
2.2. Data Sources
2.3. Research Methodology
- Cumulative distance level method
- Mann–Kendall trend analysis method
3. Results and Analysis
3.1. Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Variation in Lake Water Surface Area
3.2. Analysis of the Drivers of Lake Evolution
3.3. Analysis of the Driving Factors for the Evolution of the Yellow Irrigation District
- Upstream water
- Precipitation in the Yellow Irrigation Area
- Water consumption
- Lower cushion surface
- The lake water surface area shows a significant increase from 1986–2019, and overall since 1988, the lake water surface shows a significant increase, with a total area increase rate of 235 hm2/year.
- The annual average temperature in the northern region of Ningxia from 1980 to 2018 shows a slow increasing trend, and the temperature increases sharply from 1998 onwards. The temperature series has a significant upward trend at the 99% confidence level. In the past 39 years, the average annual precipitation in the northern Ningxia Yellow Irrigation Area shows a fluctuating upward trend, and the upward trend of the precipitation series is significant at the 90% confidence level.
- The analysis of the driving factors shows that the water surface area of the mainstream is mainly significantly and positively correlated with the upstream incoming water, is significantly and negatively correlated with the area of grassland and is significantly and positively correlated with the area of arable land and construction land. The effect of land cover on the water surface of the mainstream is lesser than that on the water surface area other than the mainstream, i.e., the change in land cover mainly causes the change in the water surface of other lakes, irrigation channels, drainage ditches and tributaries in the affected area.
- To achieve an optimal allocation of water resources in the basin, it is necessary to further strengthen macrocontrol and gradually reverse the deteriorating trend of lakes and rivers, promote the upgrading and transformation of industrial structures, increase the control of point source and surface source pollution and make deeper efforts to achieve the optimal allocation of water resources in the Yellow River Basin.
- Vigorously conducting river and lake resource monitoring. Find the most suitable local ecological system management methods and apply them to practical work to provide scientific and complete theoretical and technical support for the protection of the Yellow River and its lakes and all ecological resources.
- Strengthening the propaganda and education about river and lake protection. We should conduct education and promote related knowledge more deeply and extensively, and it should be necessary to conduct on-the-spot lectures and propaganda in seriously damaged areas so that people can deeply understand the importance of protecting the integrity of rivers and lakes to protect the ecosystem.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Water Surface Area||Rainfall||Upstream||Total Water Consumption||Total Water Use||Woodland||Grassland||Cropland||Construction Land|
|Yellow River Irrigation Area||0.371 *||0.461 *||−0.675 **||0.073||−0.171||−0.794 **||0.501 **||0.883 **|
|Mainstream.||0.231||0.389 *||−0.364||0.142||−0.216||−0.589 **||0.445 **||0.645 **|
|Water surface area except for mainstream||0.389 *||0.445 *||−0.696 **||0.051||−0.145||−0.803 **||0.484 **||0.897 **|
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Ding, X.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Z.; Shang, G.; Huang, Y.; Li, H. Analysis of the Evolution Pattern and Driving Mechanism of Lakes in the Northern Ningxia Yellow Diversion Irrigation Area. Water 2022, 14, 3658. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223658
Ding X, Zhang H, Wang Z, Shang G, Huang Y, Li H. Analysis of the Evolution Pattern and Driving Mechanism of Lakes in the Northern Ningxia Yellow Diversion Irrigation Area. Water. 2022; 14(22):3658. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223658Chicago/Turabian Style
Ding, Xueqi, Haitao Zhang, Zhe Wang, Guoxiu Shang, Yongzeng Huang, and Hongze Li. 2022. "Analysis of the Evolution Pattern and Driving Mechanism of Lakes in the Northern Ningxia Yellow Diversion Irrigation Area" Water 14, no. 22: 3658. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223658