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Investigating the Attitude of Domestic Water Use in Urban and Rural Households in South Africa

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Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Agriculture, University of Venda, P.O. Box X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
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Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Agriculture, University of Venda, P.O. Box X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
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Department of Environmental and Occupational Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town 8000, South Africa
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2022, 14(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020210
Received: 2 October 2021 / Revised: 23 December 2021 / Accepted: 6 January 2022 / Published: 12 January 2022
South Africa is a semi-arid, water-stressed country. Adequate measures should be put in place to prevent water wastage. This paper aims to assess domestic water wastage and determine the proper attitude towards household water management in rural and urban communities in South Africa. This study was conceptualised in two stages. Firstly, critical observations were used to examine the attitude of households towards water usage in both urban and rural communities (Durban and Thohoyandou, respectively). Secondly, structured questionnaires and interviews were used to identify the factors that influenced the participants’ attitudes towards domestic water usage. This study concludes that, irrespective of the literacy level, accessibility to limited water supply, information available through advertisements about water scarcity, and better water management in an urban community, the rural community has a better attitude towards domestic water usage and water management. The result (83.3%) also indicated that the rural community strongly agreed to be water savers in their homes. However, in the urban community, the results from the participants were somewhat evenly distributed; the participants strongly agreed and disagreed at 36.2% and 32.2%, respectively. Other results of the study also showed that variables such as family upbringing, inaccessibility of domestic water, and advertisement play a major role in influencing the attitude of the rural community to water usage. These variables were statistically significant at p < 0.001. However, the immediate environment was shown to be not statistically significant at p < 0.911. Based on the study results, it is recommended that households should be encouraged to generate greywater collection systems to reduce water use and improve water reuse. The government could introduce a rationed allocation (shedding) of domestic water in urban communities to draw attention to the prevalence of water scarcity in the nation. View Full-Text
Keywords: attitude; domestic water use; South Africa; water management; water conservation attitude; domestic water use; South Africa; water management; water conservation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Njoku, P.O.; Durowoju, O.S.; Uhunamure, S.E.; Makungo, R. Investigating the Attitude of Domestic Water Use in Urban and Rural Households in South Africa. Water 2022, 14, 210. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020210

AMA Style

Njoku PO, Durowoju OS, Uhunamure SE, Makungo R. Investigating the Attitude of Domestic Water Use in Urban and Rural Households in South Africa. Water. 2022; 14(2):210. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020210

Chicago/Turabian Style

Njoku, Prince O., Olatunde S. Durowoju, Solomon E. Uhunamure, and Rachel Makungo. 2022. "Investigating the Attitude of Domestic Water Use in Urban and Rural Households in South Africa" Water 14, no. 2: 210. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020210

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