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Article

Governance and Sustainability Challenges in the Water Policy of Morocco 1995–2020: Insights from the Middle Draa Valley

1
Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, 76829 Landau, Germany
2
CRESC-Centre de Recherches et d’Études sur les Sociétés Contemporaines, Rabat 10000, Morocco
3
Peace Academy Rhineland-Palatinate, University of Koblenz-Landau, 76829 Landau, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea G. Capodaglio
Water 2022, 14(18), 2932; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182932
Received: 4 August 2022 / Revised: 3 September 2022 / Accepted: 6 September 2022 / Published: 19 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
Since the UN Water Conference in 1977, international debates have centered on global water scarcity and achieving sustainable development. In 1995, Morocco introduced a water policy to strengthen the country’s socio-economic development through irrigated agriculture, while ensuring the long-term sustainability of water resources through integrated water resource management (IWRM). Empirical research, however, reveals decreasing groundwater levels and increasing inequalities around water access. The purpose of this article is to shed light on the challenges this policy provokes for achieving sustainable development, the limitations it faces to implement IWRM, and provide insights on how the policy is linked to the increased pressure on water resources as reported in the literature. We conducted a content analysis of ten key water policy documents and thirty-seven in-depth semi-structured interviews undertaken between 2020 and 2021 with governmental actors and inhabitants of the Middle Draa Valley (south Morocco). We found that sustainability and social-inequality problems unintendedly triggered by the policy were linked to three factors: the use of a disciplinary approach for policy formulation and its limitations to encompass the complexity of the water-related problems, the compartmentalization of government sectors hindering the development of sound solutions to water-related problems, and the neglect of social, economic, and political factors affecting actual access to water. View Full-Text
Keywords: Morocco; Middle Draa Valley; water policy; sustainable development; IWRM; access to water Morocco; Middle Draa Valley; water policy; sustainable development; IWRM; access to water
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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva-Novoa Sánchez, L.M.; Bossenbroek, L.; Schilling, J.; Berger, E. Governance and Sustainability Challenges in the Water Policy of Morocco 1995–2020: Insights from the Middle Draa Valley. Water 2022, 14, 2932. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182932

AMA Style

Silva-Novoa Sánchez LM, Bossenbroek L, Schilling J, Berger E. Governance and Sustainability Challenges in the Water Policy of Morocco 1995–2020: Insights from the Middle Draa Valley. Water. 2022; 14(18):2932. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182932

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silva-Novoa Sánchez, Luis Miguel, Lisa Bossenbroek, Janpeter Schilling, and Elisabeth Berger. 2022. "Governance and Sustainability Challenges in the Water Policy of Morocco 1995–2020: Insights from the Middle Draa Valley" Water 14, no. 18: 2932. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182932

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