Next Article in Journal
Water Resources Allocation in the Tingjiang River Basin: Construction of an Interval-Fuzzy Two-Stage Chance-Constraints Model and Its Assessment through Pearson Correlation
Previous Article in Journal
Future Projections and Uncertainties of CMIP6 for Hydrological Indicators and Their Discrepancies from CMIP5 over South Korea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Examining How a Smart Rainwater Harvesting System Connected to a Green Roof Can Improve Urban Stormwater Management
 
 
Article

Water Efficiency Households Retrofit Proposal Based on Rainwater Quality in Acapulco, Mexico

1
Centro de Ciencias de Desarrollo Regional, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Privada de Laurel No. 13, Col. El Roble, Acapulco C.P. 39640, Mexico
2
Escuela Superior de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Ex Hacienda San Juan Bautista s/n, Taxco el Viejo C.P. 40323, Mexico
3
Department of Chemistry, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Gustavo A. Madero C.P. 07360, Mexico
4
Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Av. Juárez No. 38 Interior, C.U. Zona Norte, Chilpancingo C.P. 39000, Mexico
5
CONACYT-Escuela Superior de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Ex Hacienda San Juan Bautista s/n, Taxco el Viejo C.P. 40323, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cristina M. Monteiro and Cristina Matos Silva
Water 2022, 14(18), 2927; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182927
Received: 9 August 2022 / Revised: 13 September 2022 / Accepted: 14 September 2022 / Published: 19 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Infrastructure as a Technology for Rainwater Retention)
Climate change, urbanization, and population growth, particularly in urban areas such as Acapulco, Mexico, put pressure on water availability, where although surrounded by water, the inhabitants lack enough good-quality water, especially in the rainy season. In addition, water scarcity, socioeconomic factors, and infrastructure problems limit the satisfaction of water demand in this context, e.g., operational issues in the water treatment plants and problems in the distribution network caused by hurricanes. The objectives of this research were: (i) to determine the rainwater quality in Acapulco, Mexico; (ii) to propose a domestic water efficiency retrofit (WER) design implementing a rainwater harvesting system (RWHS); and (iii) to determine the RWHS efficiency in terms of economic savings, considering rainwater’s social acceptance for domestic consumptive uses. The WER design was developed in an SFH in Acapulco, Mexico. The RWHS catchment surface area was 29 m2. The device comprises a first-rain separator (20 L) and a storage tank (1200 L). The rainwater harvesting potential (RWHP) was evaluated during the 2020 and 2021 rainy seasons, whereas the harvested rainwater quality (HRWQ) was analyzed in samples from 2021. Alkalinity, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, and heavy metals and potentially toxic metalloids were analyzed. Additionally, 168 surveys were applied to SFH owners to evaluate WER acceptance. Results showed that the RWHP was ca. 44 and 21 L/m2 in 2020 and 2021, respectively. All the rainwater quality parameters met the World Health Organization guidelines for consumptive uses except for drinking water. The perception study showed a 95% willingness to adopt the WER. Due to the RWHP and the HRWQ, the WER of SFHs is a promising solution to address Acapulco hydric stress under the nature-based solutions approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: nature-based solutions; rainwater harvesting system; water-sensitive cities; water stress; rainwater quality; water efficiency retrofit nature-based solutions; rainwater harvesting system; water-sensitive cities; water stress; rainwater quality; water efficiency retrofit
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez-Castrejón, M.; Flores-Munguía, E.J.; Talavera-Mendoza, O.; Rodríguez-Herrera, A.L.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Alcaraz-Morales, O.; López-Díaz, J.A.; Hernández-Flores, G. Water Efficiency Households Retrofit Proposal Based on Rainwater Quality in Acapulco, Mexico. Water 2022, 14, 2927. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182927

AMA Style

Martínez-Castrejón M, Flores-Munguía EJ, Talavera-Mendoza O, Rodríguez-Herrera AL, Solorza-Feria O, Alcaraz-Morales O, López-Díaz JA, Hernández-Flores G. Water Efficiency Households Retrofit Proposal Based on Rainwater Quality in Acapulco, Mexico. Water. 2022; 14(18):2927. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182927

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez-Castrejón, Mariana, Enrique J. Flores-Munguía, Oscar Talavera-Mendoza, América L. Rodríguez-Herrera, Omar Solorza-Feria, Osbelia Alcaraz-Morales, Jazmin A. López-Díaz, and Giovanni Hernández-Flores. 2022. "Water Efficiency Households Retrofit Proposal Based on Rainwater Quality in Acapulco, Mexico" Water 14, no. 18: 2927. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182927

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop