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Article

Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Water Resources’ Green Utilization Efficiency in China: Based on the EBM Model with Undesirable Outputs and SDM Model

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College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
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Institute of Spatial Planning and Regional Economy, Chinese Academy of Macroeconomic Research, Beijing 100038, China
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Faculty of Architecture, Civil and Transportation Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
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Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
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Smart City College, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100101, China
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Management College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
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School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cesar Andrade and Pankaj Kumar
Water 2022, 14(18), 2908; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182908
Received: 11 August 2022 / Revised: 28 August 2022 / Accepted: 2 September 2022 / Published: 17 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
A shortage of water resources is a global issue of common concern. The contribution of the article mainly includes the following two parts. First is the study of water resources’ green utilization efficiency (WRGUE) in 30 provincial administrative units of China from 2009 to 2019 by adopting the epsilon-based measure (EBM) model with undesirable outputs, which can yield a more accurate and reasonable assessment result. In addition, the spatial Durbin model was applied to analyze the driving factors of the WRGUE, which considers the spatial effects. The results are as follows: (1) The discrepancy of the WRGUE in different regions of China is conspicuous, with the highest in East China, followed by the central and the western region, while the Northeast is the lowest. A general decrease trend from China’s southeast coastal area to the northwest inland is presented. (2) Global spatial autocorrelation analysis shows a significant positive spatial autocorrelation in the WRGUE of the 30 sample provinces. However, the local spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that the WRGUE in China presents stronger spatial homogeneity than heterogeneity. (3) The levels of technology advancement, economic development, and the Opening-up policy implementation serve as positive factors influencing the WRGUE in China. On the contrary, the urbanization level has a significant negative impact on the WRGUE. The results of this paper may have great value for sustainable water resource utilization. View Full-Text
Keywords: water resources green utilization efficiency; spatial autocorrelation analysis; spatial Durbin model water resources green utilization efficiency; spatial autocorrelation analysis; spatial Durbin model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zeng, L.; Li, P.; Yu, Z.; Nie, Y.; Li, S.; Gao, G.; Huang, D. Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Water Resources’ Green Utilization Efficiency in China: Based on the EBM Model with Undesirable Outputs and SDM Model. Water 2022, 14, 2908. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182908

AMA Style

Zeng L, Li P, Yu Z, Nie Y, Li S, Gao G, Huang D. Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Water Resources’ Green Utilization Efficiency in China: Based on the EBM Model with Undesirable Outputs and SDM Model. Water. 2022; 14(18):2908. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182908

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zeng, Liangen, Peilin Li, Zhao Yu, Yang Nie, Shengzhang Li, Guangye Gao, and Di Huang. 2022. "Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Water Resources’ Green Utilization Efficiency in China: Based on the EBM Model with Undesirable Outputs and SDM Model" Water 14, no. 18: 2908. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182908

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