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Article

Efficient Removal of Methyl Red Dye by Using Bark of Hopbush

1
Department of Chemistry, Women University Swabi, Swabi 22101, Pakistan
2
Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara 18800, Pakistan
4
Institute for Mechanics of Materials, University of Latvia, Jelgavas Street 3, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Zuorro
Water 2022, 14(18), 2831; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182831
Received: 8 August 2022 / Revised: 28 August 2022 / Accepted: 5 September 2022 / Published: 11 September 2022
Methyl red (MR) dye, one of the azo dyes, is mutagenic and its persistence has negative effects on the environment and people’s health. The current work is the first to demonstrate that methyl red dye can be removed effectively and sustainably, utilizing biomass derived from the bark of the Dodonaea viscosa (Hopbush) plant. The Hopbush bark shows effective adsorption of MR, upto 73%, under optimized conditions in an aqueous medium. The experimental conditions were optimized by examining the effect of time, initial dye concentration, pH and ionic strength on the adsorption process in an aqueous medium. Maximum (i.e., 73%) adsorption of MR removal (500 ppm) was observed in highly acidic conditions (pH = 1) at a contact time of 75 min. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich adsorption isotherm appeared to be the most appropriate for characterizing the MR’s adsorption onto the bark of the D. viscosa plant. Furthermore, it was shown that bark powder outperformed animal charcoal, silica gel, and powdered flowers, as well as the leaves of the same species, in terms of adsorption capacity. Thus, a natural adsorbent that is inexpensive and readily available—the bark of the D. viscosa plant—can be used to effectively remove harmful dyes from contaminated water and protect water resources from harmful pollutants. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dodonaea viscosa plant bark; animal charcoal; silica gel; adsorption kinetics; adsorption isotherm Dodonaea viscosa plant bark; animal charcoal; silica gel; adsorption kinetics; adsorption isotherm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gul, S.; Kanwal, M.; Qazi, R.A.; Gul, H.; Khattak, R.; Khan, M.S.; Khitab, F.; Krauklis, A.E. Efficient Removal of Methyl Red Dye by Using Bark of Hopbush. Water 2022, 14, 2831. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182831

AMA Style

Gul S, Kanwal M, Qazi RA, Gul H, Khattak R, Khan MS, Khitab F, Krauklis AE. Efficient Removal of Methyl Red Dye by Using Bark of Hopbush. Water. 2022; 14(18):2831. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182831

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gul, Salma, Mansha Kanwal, Raina Aman Qazi, Hajera Gul, Rozina Khattak, Muhammad Sufaid Khan, Fatima Khitab, and Andrey E. Krauklis. 2022. "Efficient Removal of Methyl Red Dye by Using Bark of Hopbush" Water 14, no. 18: 2831. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182831

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