(Un)Affordability of Informal Water Systems: Disparities in a Comparative Case Study in Beirut, Lebanon
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Case Study Area
2.2. Data Collection
2.3. Data Analysis
2.3.1. Income Levels
2.3.2. Cost and Volume per Source
- p = power (kW), 0.7457 kW. The typical household pump sizes are around 1 horsepower (HP), based on the water utility .
- 6116 × 103 = constant for conversion.
- μ = pump efficiency (0.70).
- h = differential head, depth of the wells (m). Intake depth is usually less than the well depth. However, since intake depth was not available, it was assumed that the pumps are at the ground level and residents pump water from the bottom of the pumps which was considered as the pumping height. The interviewees provided the depth of the well, however for the missing depths an average of 70 m was taken into account, based on the average well depth from the interviews.
- d = density (1000 kg/m3).
- Q = volume flow (m3/h) = 1.284 m3/h.
- ρ = density (1000 kg/m3).
- g = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s2).
- h = differential head, depth of the wells (m). As noted above, pumping height was based on the well depth since depth intake data was not available.
- c = cost in kW per minute (USD/kW). It was based on the Lebanese cost of kW of 0.0958 USD/kW/min.
- 3.6 × 106 = constant for conversion.
- μp = pump efficiency = 0.7.
- μm= motor efficiency =0.7.
3.1. Income Distribution of Both Communities
3.2. Volume Use by Source and Their Seasonal Variation
Volume Comparison between Communities
3.3. Cost Comparison per Source between Communities
Promised and Actual Costs
3.4. Water (Un)Affordability
Sensitivity Affordability Analysis
3.5. Disparities between Communities and Their Statistical Significance
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Winter Volume||Summer Volume|
|Formal Piped Water||114||69|
|Formal Piped Water||99||99|
|Average Unit Cost (USD/L)|
|Formal Piped Water||0.0017|
Percentage of Households
Percentage of Households
|Water is Highly Unaffordable|
|Water is Unaffordable|
Between 10% and 5%
|Water is Moderately Affordable|
Between 5% and 3%
|Water is Affordable|
Less than 3%
|Total Cost of per Person *|
|% of Cost per Source||Cost per Liter|
|Total Cost of per Person * USD/person/year||% of Cost per Source||Cost per Liter|
|Formal Piped Water||53||13%||0.0015||71||12%||0.0020|
|Bottled Water||324||79%||0.4352 **||507||84%||0.6004 **|
|Tankers||33 **||8%||0.0048||9 **||2%||0.0036|
|Wells||1 **||0.2%||0.0002||10 **||2%||0.0047|
|Additional Pumping Costs||2||0.4%||0.0000||3||1%||0.0000|
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Choueiri, Y.; Lund, J.; London, J.K.; Spang, E.S. (Un)Affordability of Informal Water Systems: Disparities in a Comparative Case Study in Beirut, Lebanon. Water 2022, 14, 2713. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172713
Choueiri Y, Lund J, London JK, Spang ES. (Un)Affordability of Informal Water Systems: Disparities in a Comparative Case Study in Beirut, Lebanon. Water. 2022; 14(17):2713. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172713Chicago/Turabian Style
Choueiri, Yasmina, Jay Lund, Jonathan K. London, and Edward S. Spang. 2022. "(Un)Affordability of Informal Water Systems: Disparities in a Comparative Case Study in Beirut, Lebanon" Water 14, no. 17: 2713. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172713