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Article

Drinking Bottled and Tap Water for Healthier Living in Volcanic Areas: Are All Waters the Same?

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IVAR, Research Institute for Volcanology and Risk Assessment, University of the Azores, Rua da Mãe de Deus, Apartado 1422, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
2
Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
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cE3c, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zhiliang Zhu
Water 2022, 14(15), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152424
Received: 15 July 2022 / Revised: 2 August 2022 / Accepted: 3 August 2022 / Published: 5 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Water and One Health)
In most volcanic areas, the population considers the use of bottled waters as a healthier and safer option. This study aimed to (i) assess the fluoride concentrations in tap and bottled water consumed on São Miguel Island, (ii) confirm the accuracy of the labeling of fluoride levels on bottled water, and (iii) assess the fluoride daily intake and risk exposure and discuss the possible health effects in adults and children. Fluoride concentrations were measured in tap water (49 samples) and bottled water (23 samples) with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The fluoride concentration was above the recommended limit in tap water from Sete Cidades (1.71 mg/L), in bottled waters nº 5 and 7 from category C (2.05 ± 0.04 mg/L and 2.36 ± 0.14 mg/L, respectively), and in bottled water nº 5 from category D (1.92 ± 0.03 mg/L). Fluoride daily intake in children reached a maximum value in gasified water nº 7 (0.059 mg F/day/kg). The risk assessment evidenced that all the brands with over 1.2 mgF/L might be a concern for potential non-cancer health effects, especially in adults. The most recognized brands of gasified and gasified flavored waters represent a higher risk of exceeding fluoride daily intake when compared to tap and mineral bottled waters. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluoride; bottled water; daily intake; risk exposure assessment; volcanic regions; fluorosis fluoride; bottled water; daily intake; risk exposure assessment; volcanic regions; fluorosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Linhares, D.; Gaspar, D.; Garcia, P.; Rodrigues, A. Drinking Bottled and Tap Water for Healthier Living in Volcanic Areas: Are All Waters the Same? Water 2022, 14, 2424. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152424

AMA Style

Linhares D, Gaspar D, Garcia P, Rodrigues A. Drinking Bottled and Tap Water for Healthier Living in Volcanic Areas: Are All Waters the Same? Water. 2022; 14(15):2424. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152424

Chicago/Turabian Style

Linhares, Diana, Diogo Gaspar, Patrícia Garcia, and Armindo Rodrigues. 2022. "Drinking Bottled and Tap Water for Healthier Living in Volcanic Areas: Are All Waters the Same?" Water 14, no. 15: 2424. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152424

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