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Article

Assessment of the Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms of Groundwater in A Typical Alluvial-Proluvial Plain in China: An Example from Western Yongqing County

1
Hebei Key Laboratory of Environment Monitoring and Protection of Geological Resources, Hebei Geological Environment Monitoring Institute, Shijiazhuang 050021, China
2
Hebei Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Shijiazhuang 050000, China
3
School of Water Resources and Environment, Hebei GEO University, Shijiazhuang 050031, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas M. Missimer
Water 2022, 14(15), 2395; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152395
Received: 24 June 2022 / Revised: 27 July 2022 / Accepted: 28 July 2022 / Published: 2 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quality and Public Health)
The geographic location of Yongqing County is optimal, covering the center of the Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding triangle. However, the economic and social development of Yongqing County in recent years has resulted in negative impacts on groundwater. Therefore, investigating the current status of groundwater chemistry in Yongqing County is of great significance to provide a useful basis for future studies on groundwater quality assessment. The aim of this study is to assess the hydrochemical characteristics and formation mechanisms of the unconfined aquifers of Yongqing County using descriptive statistical and multivariate statistical methods. In addition, ionic ratios, Piper diagram, Gibbs diagrams, and PHREEQC software were used in this study to determine the main factors influencing the hydrochemical characteristics of the unconfined aquifers. The results suggested slightly alkaline groundwater of the unconfined aquifers in the western part of Yongqing County, belonging to the fresh-brackish groundwater type. In addition, the hydrochemistry facies types in the study area are complex, consisting of four facies types, namely HCO3−Mg·Ca, HCO3−Na, HCO3-Na·Ca, and HCO3-Na·Mg. On the other hand, the main factors influencing the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater are mineral dissolution followed by some anthropogenic pollution. Rock dominance was the main influencing factor, demonstrated by thedissolution of silicate and carbonate rock minerals. In addition, the alternating adsorption of cations occurring in the aquifer plays a non-negligible effect on the hydrochemical characteristics of the unconfined aquifers in the study area. In fact, the validation results using PHREEQC inverse hydrogeochemical simulations demonstrated consistent conclusions with those mentioned above. According to the findings obtained, the dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals as well as Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ion exchange in the aquifer are the main factors influencing the hydrochemical characteristics of the unconfined aquifers of Yongqing County. The recommendations suggest put forward in this research are helpful to understand the formation mechanism of hydrochemistry in typical alluvial proluvial plain and provide insights for decision makers to protect the groundwater resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater quality; water chemistry characteristics; multivariate statistical analysis; PHREEQC; typical mountain front tilted plain groundwater quality; water chemistry characteristics; multivariate statistical analysis; PHREEQC; typical mountain front tilted plain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bai, X.; Tian, X.; Li, J.; Wang, X.; Li, Y.; Zhou, Y. Assessment of the Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms of Groundwater in A Typical Alluvial-Proluvial Plain in China: An Example from Western Yongqing County. Water 2022, 14, 2395. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152395

AMA Style

Bai X, Tian X, Li J, Wang X, Li Y, Zhou Y. Assessment of the Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms of Groundwater in A Typical Alluvial-Proluvial Plain in China: An Example from Western Yongqing County. Water. 2022; 14(15):2395. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152395

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bai, Xueshan, Xizhao Tian, Junfeng Li, Xinzhou Wang, Yi Li, and Yahong Zhou. 2022. "Assessment of the Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms of Groundwater in A Typical Alluvial-Proluvial Plain in China: An Example from Western Yongqing County" Water 14, no. 15: 2395. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152395

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