The geographic location of Yongqing County is optimal, covering the center of the Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding triangle. However, the economic and social development of Yongqing County in recent years has resulted in negative impacts on groundwater. Therefore, investigating the current status of groundwater chemistry in Yongqing County is of great significance to provide a useful basis for future studies on groundwater quality assessment. The aim of this study is to assess the hydrochemical characteristics and formation mechanisms of the unconfined aquifers of Yongqing County using descriptive statistical and multivariate statistical methods. In addition, ionic ratios, Piper diagram, Gibbs diagrams, and PHREEQC software were used in this study to determine the main factors influencing the hydrochemical characteristics of the unconfined aquifers. The results suggested slightly alkaline groundwater of the unconfined aquifers in the western part of Yongqing County, belonging to the fresh-brackish groundwater type. In addition, the hydrochemistry facies types in the study area are complex, consisting of four facies types, namely HCO3−
-Na·Ca, and HCO3−
-Na·Mg. On the other hand, the main factors influencing the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater are mineral dissolution followed by some anthropogenic pollution. Rock dominance was the main influencing factor, demonstrated by thedissolution of silicate and carbonate rock minerals. In addition, the alternating adsorption of cations occurring in the aquifer plays a non-negligible effect on the hydrochemical characteristics of the unconfined aquifers in the study area. In fact, the validation results using PHREEQC inverse hydrogeochemical simulations demonstrated consistent conclusions with those mentioned above. According to the findings obtained, the dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals as well as Na+
, and Ca2+
ion exchange in the aquifer are the main factors influencing the hydrochemical characteristics of the unconfined aquifers of Yongqing County. The recommendations suggest put forward in this research are helpful to understand the formation mechanism of hydrochemistry in typical alluvial proluvial plain and provide insights for decision makers to protect the groundwater resources.
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