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Article

Streamflow Measurement Using Mean Surface Velocity

1
Department of Civil Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
2
Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Su-Chin Chen
Water 2022, 14(15), 2370; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152370
Received: 6 June 2022 / Revised: 26 July 2022 / Accepted: 28 July 2022 / Published: 31 July 2022
This study developed an efficient discharge measurement method that can be applied to estimate the streamflow of natural streams and artificial channels. The conventional methods that apply current meters to measure discharge are costly, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Owing to a shortage of observers in streamflow measurement and for the safety of hydrologists and with advances in measurement techniques, many have strongly suggested the use of non-contact methods when determining streamflow. The non-contact methods that use floats or surface velocity radar to determine the streamflow are becoming more and more popular especially during periods of high water. However, it is not easy to estimate the surface velocity coefficient of each vertical directly for determining the mean velocity in each subsection. As the relationship between the mean surface velocity and mean velocity of a stream cross-section is constant, an efficient and accurate non-contact method of streamflow measurement could be further developed. Thus, streamflow can be estimated by the constant, the mean surface velocity, and cross-sectional area of a stream. The mean velocity of a cross-section, used for parameter calibration, is usually obtained from the discharge made based on the velocity-area principle and cross-sectional area. The surface velocity was measured at the vertical that is then used to estimate mean velocity of a subsection. Once the parameter is determined, streamflow can be obtained from the surface velocity. This approach was further applied to a natural stream and an artificial channel. Measurements were made to verify the reliability and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results show that the relationship between mean channel velocity and mean surface velocity is very stable in both a natural stream and an artificial channel because the streamflow differences, given by the proposed and the conventional method, are relatively insignificant. As a result, mean surface velocity can be used to determine the streamflow quickly and provides for a reliable and accurate measurement of streamflow. View Full-Text
Keywords: discharge measurement; mean surface velocity; non-contact measurement; acoustic doppler flowmeter; magnetic-inductive current meter discharge measurement; mean surface velocity; non-contact measurement; acoustic doppler flowmeter; magnetic-inductive current meter
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.-C.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Zai, E.O. Streamflow Measurement Using Mean Surface Velocity. Water 2022, 14, 2370. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152370

AMA Style

Chen Y-C, Hsu Y-C, Zai EO. Streamflow Measurement Using Mean Surface Velocity. Water. 2022; 14(15):2370. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152370

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Yen-Chang, Yung-Chia Hsu, and Eben Oktavianus Zai. 2022. "Streamflow Measurement Using Mean Surface Velocity" Water 14, no. 15: 2370. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152370

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