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Article

Optimizing the Performance of Coupled 1D/2D Hydrodynamic Models for Early Warning of Flash Floods

1
Laboratory of Applied Hydraulics, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece
2
Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Resources Development, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece
3
Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athanasios Loukas
Water 2022, 14(15), 2356; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152356
Received: 15 June 2022 / Revised: 25 July 2022 / Accepted: 27 July 2022 / Published: 30 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood and Other Hydrogeomorphological Risk Management and Analysis)
We pose the following research question, “what are (i) the minimum required computation grid and (ii) the required form of hydrodynamic equations, i.e., shallow water equations (SWE) or diffusion wave equations (DWE), in 2D modeling to minimize the computational time while maintaining an acceptable level of error in the prediction of water depths and the extent of flood inundated areas?”. To answer this question, we apply the HEC-RAS 1D/2D model to simulate a disastrous flash flood in the town of Mandra, in Attica, Greece, in November 2017. HEC-RAS 1D/2D combines 1D modeling in the cross-sections of the two main streams of Mandra with 2D modeling in the rest of the potentially flooded area of the computational domain which has an area equal to 18.36 km2. We perform calculations for 8 scenarios that combined various grid sizes (with approximately 44,000–95,000 control volumes) with the use of the SWE or DWE. We derive the following conclusions: (i) calculated maximum water depths using DWE were equal to 60–65% of the corresponding water depths using SWE, i.e., the DWE significantly underestimated water depths; (ii) calculated total inundation areas using the SWE were approximately 4.9–7.9% larger than the corresponding inundation areas using the DWE; these differences can be considered as acceptable; and (iii) the total computation times using SWE, which ranged from 67 to 127 min, were 60–70% longer than the computation times using DWE. View Full-Text
Keywords: flash floods; HEC-RAS 1D/2D; Mandra (Attica); hydrodynamic modeling; flood arrival times flash floods; HEC-RAS 1D/2D; Mandra (Attica); hydrodynamic modeling; flood arrival times
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mitsopoulos, G.; Panagiotatou, E.; Sant, V.; Baltas, E.; Diakakis, M.; Lekkas, E.; Stamou, A. Optimizing the Performance of Coupled 1D/2D Hydrodynamic Models for Early Warning of Flash Floods. Water 2022, 14, 2356. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152356

AMA Style

Mitsopoulos G, Panagiotatou E, Sant V, Baltas E, Diakakis M, Lekkas E, Stamou A. Optimizing the Performance of Coupled 1D/2D Hydrodynamic Models for Early Warning of Flash Floods. Water. 2022; 14(15):2356. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152356

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mitsopoulos, Georgios, Elpida Panagiotatou, Vasiliki Sant, Evangelos Baltas, Michalis Diakakis, Efthymios Lekkas, and Anastasios Stamou. 2022. "Optimizing the Performance of Coupled 1D/2D Hydrodynamic Models for Early Warning of Flash Floods" Water 14, no. 15: 2356. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152356

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