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Article

Use of Hyperspectral Reflectance and Water Quality Indices to Assess Groundwater Quality for Drinking in Arid Regions, Saudi Arabia

1
Water Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3
Agricultural Engineering, Evaluation of Natural Resources Department, Environmental Studies and Research Institute, University of Sadat City, Sadat City 32897, Egypt
4
Hydrogeology, Evaluation of Natural Resources Department, Environmental Studies and Research Institute, University of Sadat City, Sadat City 32897, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea G. Capodaglio
Water 2022, 14(15), 2311; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152311
Received: 26 June 2022 / Revised: 19 July 2022 / Accepted: 19 July 2022 / Published: 25 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
Combining hydrogeochemical characterization and a hyperspectral reflectance measurement can provide knowledge for groundwater security under different conditions. In this study, comprehensive examinations of 173 groundwater samples were carried out in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Province, Saudi Arabia. Physicochemical parameters, water quality indices (WQIs), and spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) were combined to investigate water quality and controlling factors using multivariate modeling techniques, such as partial least-square regression (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR). To measure water quality status, the drinking water quality index (DWQI), total dissolved solids (TDS), heavy metal index (HPI), contamination degree (Cd), and pollution index (PI) were calculated. Standard analytical methods were used to assess nineteen physicochemical parameters. The typical values of ions and metals were as follows: Na2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, Cl > SO42− > HCO3 > NO3 > CO32−; and Cu > Fe > Al > Zn > Mn > Ni, respectively. The hydrogeochemical characteristics of the examined groundwater samples revealed that Ca-HCO3, Na-Cl, mixed Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, and Na-Ca-HCO3 were the main mechanisms governing groundwater chemistry and quality under the load of seawater intrusion, weathering, and water-rock interaction. According to the WQIs results, the DWQI values revealed that 2.5% of groundwater samples were categorized as excellent, 18.0% as good, 28.0% as poor, 21.5% as extremely poor, and 30.0% as unfit for drinking. The HPI and Cd values revealed that all groundwater samples had a low degree of contamination and better quality. Furthermore, the PI values showed that the groundwater resources were not affected by metals but were slightly affected by Mn in Wadi Fatimah due to rock–water interaction. Linear regression models demonstrated the significant relationships for the majority of SRIs paired with DWQI (R varied from −0.40 to 0. 75), and with TDS (R varied from 0.46 to 0.74) for the studied wadies. In general, the PLSR and PCR models provide better estimations for DWQI and TDS than the individual SRI. In conclusion, the grouping of WQIs, SRIs, PLSR, PCR, and GIS tools provides a clear image of groundwater suitability for drinking and its controlling elements. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater quality; water facies; geochemical processes; spectral reflectance indices; drinking water; pollution indices groundwater quality; water facies; geochemical processes; spectral reflectance indices; drinking water; pollution indices
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alqarawy, A.; El Osta, M.; Masoud, M.; Elsayed, S.; Gad, M. Use of Hyperspectral Reflectance and Water Quality Indices to Assess Groundwater Quality for Drinking in Arid Regions, Saudi Arabia. Water 2022, 14, 2311. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152311

AMA Style

Alqarawy A, El Osta M, Masoud M, Elsayed S, Gad M. Use of Hyperspectral Reflectance and Water Quality Indices to Assess Groundwater Quality for Drinking in Arid Regions, Saudi Arabia. Water. 2022; 14(15):2311. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152311

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alqarawy, Abdulaziz, Maged El Osta, Milad Masoud, Salah Elsayed, and Mohamed Gad. 2022. "Use of Hyperspectral Reflectance and Water Quality Indices to Assess Groundwater Quality for Drinking in Arid Regions, Saudi Arabia" Water 14, no. 15: 2311. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152311

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