From Domestic Sewage to Potable Water Quality: New Approach in Organic Matter Removal Using Natural Treatment Systems for Wastewater
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Characteristics of the NTSW Pilot Plant
- The septic tank has a capacity of 3 m3, and it receives raw sewage from the IES building. Mechanical and partly biological wastewater treatment takes place here.
- The compost bed has an area of 3 m2. This bed is a key element in the process of removing organic matter from wastewater. It consists of three separate beds, each of them with a surface area of 1 m2, working under a different daily hydraulic load, namely 70, 100, and 130 l/m2 for the A, B, and C beds, respectively. The three beds have the same composition and structure. From the top, the beds consist of: an 80 cm layer of compost, a 10 cm layer of coarse sand (granulation from 0.2 to 2 mm), and a 10 cm layer of gravel (granulation from 4 to 16 mm). The compost consists of a mixture of wood chips (80%) and peat soil (20%). The entire compost bed was placed in a greenhouse to reduce the emission of odors and to reduce the negative impact of low temperatures in winter.
- The denitrification bed is used to remove nitrates from wastewater treated in the compost bed. In addition, in this case, there were three beds with an area of 1 m2, each of which was supplied with sewage treated in the corresponding part (A, B, or C) of the compost bed. The beds are filled from the top with a 40 cm layer of swamp sediments and are overgrown with wetland vegetation. Under the sediment layer, there is a 30 cm layer of coarse sand (granulation from 0.2 to 2 mm) and then a 10 cm layer of gravel (granulation from 4 to 16 mm). The bed is not involved in the removal of organic matter contained in the treated water. On the contrary, the mineralization of the sludge in the denitrification process causes a slight increase in the concentration of organic matter in the outflow.
- The phosphorus elimination bed is designed to remove phosphorus compounds from treated wastewater. In addition, in this case, there were three beds with an area of 1 m2 each, and they were supplied with outflows from the corresponding (A, B, or C) denitrification beds. The beds are filled from the top with a 50 cm layer of coarse sand (granulation from 0.2 to 2 mm) mixed with building lime (25 kg). Then, there is a 10 cm layer of gravel (granulation 4 to 16 mm). A slight elimination of organic matter occurs in the phosphorus deposits. The use of building lime to remove phosphorus contributes to an increase in the pH of the renewed water. As a result, the pH of the renewed water ultimately ranges from 9 to 10.5 and shows a constant slight downward trend.
- The active carbon bed is designed to remove organic matter remaining in the treated water. In addition, in this case, there were three beds with an area of 1 m2 each, and they were supplied with outflows from the corresponding (A, B, or C) phosphorus elimination beds. Each bed is filled from the top with a 50 cm layer of coarse sand (granulation from 0.2 to 2 mm) mixed with activated carbon (25 kg). Then, there is a 10 cm layer of gravel (granulation 4 to 16 mm).
- The renewed water reservoir (with a capacity of 5 m3) serves as a store of water recovered from sewage.
2.2. Water Sampling and Quality Assessment
2.3. Water Purification Process
3.1. Wastewater Treatment
3.1.1. Organic Pollutants Removal in the Septic Tank
3.1.2. Elimination of Organic Matter and Suspended Solids in the Compost Beds
3.2. Elimination of Organic Matter and Suspended Solids in the Water Renewal Beds
4.1. Removal Efficiency in the Septic Tank
4.2. Removal Efficiency in the Compost Beds
4.3. Removal Efficiency in the Water Renewal Beds
4.4. Possibility of Reusing the Reclaimed Water
Conflicts of Interest
|BOD||Biological Oxygen Demand|
|COD||Chemical Oxygen Demand|
|IES||Instytut Ekologii Stosowanej (Institute of Applied Ecology)|
|HRT||Hydraulic Residence Time|
|NTSW||Natural Treatment System for Wastewater|
|NTU||Nephelometric Turbidity Unit|
|TSS||Total Suspended Solids|
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|Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) mg O2/dm3||87||410||248.58|
|Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) mg O2/dm3||256||915||407.27|
|Total Suspended Solids (TSS) dm3||51.50||213.50||105.89|
|Value||Sample 1||Sample 2|
|BOD (A) mg O2/dm3||1.14||8.90||4.08||0.52||4||1.81|
|BOD (B) mg O2/dm3||1.25||12.68||5.46||0.80||4.20||2.30|
|BOD (C) mg O2/dm3||1.50||19.68||7.23||1.32||5||2.52|
|BOD total mg O2/dm3||1.14||19.68||5.59||0.52||5||2.21|
|COD (A) mg O2/dm3||41||112||61.14||4||42||16.77|
|COD (B) mg O2/dm3||29.60||111||72.04||9||56||17.90|
|COD (C) mg O2/dm3||44.30||131||85.87||8||52||18.85|
|COD total mg O2/dm3||29.6||131||73.02||4||56||17.84|
|TSS (A) mg/dm3||0.90||6.80||3.77||0||5.80||1.8|
|TSS (B) mg/dm3||0.50||7.40||3.87||0.10||6.80||2.13|
|TSS (C) mg/dm3||1.40||9.80||4.31||0.30||6.80||2.49|
|TSS total mg/dm3||0.50||9.80||3.98||0||6.80||2.14|
|Oxidation (A) mg O2/dm3||-||-||-||1.40||10.20||4.51|
|Oxidation (B) mg O2/dm3||-||-||-||2.50||12||5.10|
|Oxidation (C) mg O2/dm3||-||-||-||2.50||12||5.16|
|Oxidation total mg O2/dm3||-||-||-||1.40||12||4.92|
|Turbidity (A) NTU||-||-||-||0.02||2||0.55|
|Turbidity (B) NTU||-||-||-||0.01||2.10||0.71|
|Turbidity (C) NTU||-||-||-||0.01||2||0.61|
|Turbidity total NTU||-||-||-||0.01||2.10||0.63|
|BOD (A) mg O2/dm3||1.14||4.70||2.56|
|BOD (B) mg O2/dm3||1.25||5.78||3.10|
|BOD (C) mg O2/dm3||2.22||6.57||3.89|
|BOD total mg O2/dm3||1.14||6.57||3.18|
|COD (A) mg O2/dm3||41||71.80||55.01|
|COD (B) mg O2/dm3||29.60||89||63.39|
|COD (C) mg O2/dm3||44.30||101||79.56|
|COD total mg O2/dm3||29.60||101||65.99|
|TSS (A) mg/dm3||1.80||5.20||3.48|
|TSS (B) mg/dm3||2||5.50||3.70|
|TSS (C) mg/dm3||2.50||5.20||3.78|
|TSS total mg/dm3||1.80||5.20||3.65|
|Parameter||Unit||Treatment Plant Size, Expressed by the Number of Inhabitants|
|40 (N/A)||25 (70–90)||25 (70–90)||15 (90)|
|CW Type||Hydraulic Residence Time (Days)||BOD (mg O2/dm3)||TSS (mg/dm3)|
|Free water surface||7–15||5–10||5–15|
|BOD (mg O2/dm3)||2||≤10||≤10||≤10|
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Halicki, W.; Halicki, M. From Domestic Sewage to Potable Water Quality: New Approach in Organic Matter Removal Using Natural Treatment Systems for Wastewater. Water 2022, 14, 1909. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121909
Halicki W, Halicki M. From Domestic Sewage to Potable Water Quality: New Approach in Organic Matter Removal Using Natural Treatment Systems for Wastewater. Water. 2022; 14(12):1909. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121909Chicago/Turabian Style
Halicki, Wojciech, and Michał Halicki. 2022. "From Domestic Sewage to Potable Water Quality: New Approach in Organic Matter Removal Using Natural Treatment Systems for Wastewater" Water 14, no. 12: 1909. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121909