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Article

Delineating Groundwater Recharge Potential through Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems

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Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Cantt 47040, Pakistan
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School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA
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School of Surveying and Built Environment, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, QLD 4300, Australia
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Faculty of Civil Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Taif University, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Independent Researcher in Computer Science, Jeddah 12462, Saudi Arabia
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National Water Research Center, P.O. Box 74, Shubra El-Kheima 13411, Egypt
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dengfeng Liu, Hui Liu and Xianmeng Meng
Water 2022, 14(11), 1824; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111824
Received: 19 April 2022 / Revised: 27 May 2022 / Accepted: 2 June 2022 / Published: 6 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Hydrologic Modeling in Watershed Scales)
Owing to the extensive global dependency on groundwater and associated increasing water demand, the global groundwater level is declining rapidly. In the case of Islamabad, Pakistan, the groundwater level has lowered five times over the past five years due to extensive pumping by various departments and residents to meet the local water requirements. To address this, water reservoirs and sources need to be delineated, and potential recharge zones are highlighted to assess the recharge potential. Therefore, the current study utilizes an integrated approach based on remote sensing (RS) and GIS using the influence factor (IF) technique to delineate potential groundwater recharge zones in Islamabad, Pakistan. Soil map of Pakistan, Landsat 8TM satellite data, digital elevation model (ASTER DEM), and local geological map were used in the study for the preparation of thematic maps of 15 key contributing factors considered in this study. To generate a combined groundwater recharge map, rate and weightage values were assigned to each factor representing their mutual influence and recharge capabilities. To analyze the final combined recharge map, five different assessment analogies were used in the study: poor, low, medium, high, and best. The final recharge potential map for Islamabad classifies 15% (136.8 km2) of the region as the “best” zone for extracting groundwater. Furthermore, high, medium, low, and poor ranks were assigned to 21%, 24%, 27%, and 13% of the region with respective areas of 191.52 km2, 218.88 km2, 246.24 km2, and 118.56 km2. Overall, this research outlines the best to least favorable zones in Islamabad regarding groundwater recharge potentials. This can help the authorities devise mitigation strategies and preserve the natural terrain in the regions with the best groundwater recharge potential. This is aligned with the aims of the interior ministry of Pakistan for constructing small reservoirs and ponds in the existing natural streams and installing recharging wells to maintain the groundwater level in cities. Other countries can expand upon and adapt this study to delineate local groundwater recharge potentials. View Full-Text
Keywords: geographical information systems; groundwater assessment; groundwater recharge; remote sensing; Islamabad geographical information systems; groundwater assessment; groundwater recharge; remote sensing; Islamabad
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maqsoom, A.; Aslam, B.; Khalid, N.; Ullah, F.; Anysz, H.; Almaliki, A.H.; Almaliki, A.A.; Hussein, E.E. Delineating Groundwater Recharge Potential through Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems. Water 2022, 14, 1824. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111824

AMA Style

Maqsoom A, Aslam B, Khalid N, Ullah F, Anysz H, Almaliki AH, Almaliki AA, Hussein EE. Delineating Groundwater Recharge Potential through Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems. Water. 2022; 14(11):1824. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111824

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maqsoom, Ahsen, Bilal Aslam, Nauman Khalid, Fahim Ullah, Hubert Anysz, Abdulrazak H. Almaliki, Abdulrhman A. Almaliki, and Enas E. Hussein. 2022. "Delineating Groundwater Recharge Potential through Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems" Water 14, no. 11: 1824. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111824

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