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Effects of Irrigation and N Fertilization on 15N Fertilizer Utilization by Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon in China
 
 
Article

Effects of Timing in Irrigation and Fertilization on Soil NO3-N Distribution, Grain Yield and Water–Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Drip-Fertigated Winter Wheat in the North China Plain

1
Key Laboratory of Crop Water Use and Regulation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural, Xinxiang 453002, China
2
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
3
College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pilar Montesinos
Water 2022, 14(11), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111780
Received: 20 April 2022 / Revised: 26 May 2022 / Accepted: 30 May 2022 / Published: 1 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fertigation in Agriculture: Challenges and Solutions)
In the North China Plain, drip irrigation is gradually used in winter wheat production, and the improper management of water and fertilizer aggravates the risk of crop instability and groundwater pollution. A lysimeter experiment with three levels of fertilization timing (T1 = beginning; T2 = middle; and T3 = end of the irrigation cycle) and two irrigation rates (W1 of 30 mm and W2 of 20 mm) was carried out to investigate the effects of irrigation rate and fertilization timing on the soil NO3-N distribution, crop development, yield, and water–nitrogen usage efficiency of winter wheat. The results indicated that, under the condition of delayed fertilization timing (T2 and T3), the trend of NO3-N migration to the edge of moist soil became more apparent. The treatments of irrigation rate and fertilization timing significantly affected the plant height, water–nitrogen utilization efficiency, aboveground biomass, grain yield, and leaf area index. The maximum grain yield of 7688.67 kg ha−1 was found at W1T2, which had a nitrogen partial factor productivity (NPFP) of 32.04 kg kg−1. Moreover, W1T2 did not result in a significant reduction in irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) (4.27 kg m−3) in comparison with other treatments (4.00–5.43 kg m−3). Based on crop growth, N uptake, yield, IWUE, and NPFP, the irrigation rate of 30 mm combined with fertilization in the middle of the irrigation duration could be considered as suitable irrigation and nitrogen timing for drip-irrigated wheat. View Full-Text
Keywords: drip irrigation; winter wheat; fertilization timing; grain yield; irrigation water use efficiency; nitrogen partial factor productivity drip irrigation; winter wheat; fertilization timing; grain yield; irrigation water use efficiency; nitrogen partial factor productivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, W.; Hamani, A.K.M.; Si, Z.; Abubakar, S.A.; Liang, Y.; Liu, K.; Gao, Y. Effects of Timing in Irrigation and Fertilization on Soil NO3-N Distribution, Grain Yield and Water–Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Drip-Fertigated Winter Wheat in the North China Plain. Water 2022, 14, 1780. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111780

AMA Style

Sun W, Hamani AKM, Si Z, Abubakar SA, Liang Y, Liu K, Gao Y. Effects of Timing in Irrigation and Fertilization on Soil NO3-N Distribution, Grain Yield and Water–Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Drip-Fertigated Winter Wheat in the North China Plain. Water. 2022; 14(11):1780. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111780

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Weihao, Abdoul Kader Mounkaila Hamani, Zhuanyun Si, Sunusi Amin Abubakar, Yueping Liang, Kun Liu, and Yang Gao. 2022. "Effects of Timing in Irrigation and Fertilization on Soil NO3-N Distribution, Grain Yield and Water–Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Drip-Fertigated Winter Wheat in the North China Plain" Water 14, no. 11: 1780. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111780

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