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Article

Sea Level Variation and Trend Analysis by Comparing Mann–Kendall Test and Innovative Trend Analysis in Front of the Red River Delta, Vietnam (1961–2020)

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Institute of Marine Environment and Resources, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 246 Danang Street, Haiphong 04216, Vietnam
2
Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi 10000, Vietnam
3
UMR LEGOS, University of Toulouse, IRD, CNES, CNRS, UPS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
4
Department Water-Environment-Oceanography, University of Science and Technology of Hanoi (USTH), Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ioannis Panagiotopoulos, Serafeim E. Poulos and Vasilios Kapsimalis
Water 2022, 14(11), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111709
Received: 12 April 2022 / Revised: 23 May 2022 / Accepted: 24 May 2022 / Published: 26 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal and Continental Shelf Dynamics in a Changing Climate II)
In this study, we analyze sea surface height referenced against the WGS84 ellipsoid at the Hon Dau tidal gauge station (Hai Phong, Vietnam), in front of the Red River Delta, between 1961 and 2020. The annual sea level varied from 165.23 cm to 206.06 cm in this period (+20.28 cm over 60 years). The average water level was 190.87 cm for 60 years, with higher annual values in recent years, especially from 2016 to the present (above 201.5 cm). The Mann–Kendall (MK) test with Sen’s slope estimator and Şen’s innovative trend analysis (ITA) were applied and compared to estimate the sea level rise. These methods showed complete agreement among tests with significant rising trends of about 3.38 mm/year with the MK test and 3.08 mm/year with the ITA method for 1961–2020. During the last 20 years (2001–2020), the mean sea level increased about 7.16 mm/year (MK test and Sen’s slope), 7.38 mm/year (ITA method), and around twice higher than the rate of the region and globally. The MK test and ITA method provided similar results for periods: 1961–2020, 1961–1980, and 2001–2020, with relatively stable monotonic related trend conditions. For the period 1981–2000, with a more nonmonotonic trend, the MK test and ITA method provided different trends and allowed to illustrate the specificity of each method. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea level rise; Mann–Kendall; Sen’s slope; innovative trend analysis; Hon Dau; Hai Phong sea level rise; Mann–Kendall; Sen’s slope; innovative trend analysis; Hon Dau; Hai Phong
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, H.M.; Ouillon, S.; Vu, V.D. Sea Level Variation and Trend Analysis by Comparing Mann–Kendall Test and Innovative Trend Analysis in Front of the Red River Delta, Vietnam (1961–2020). Water 2022, 14, 1709. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111709

AMA Style

Nguyen HM, Ouillon S, Vu VD. Sea Level Variation and Trend Analysis by Comparing Mann–Kendall Test and Innovative Trend Analysis in Front of the Red River Delta, Vietnam (1961–2020). Water. 2022; 14(11):1709. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111709

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nguyen, Hai Minh, Sylvain Ouillon, and Vinh Duy Vu. 2022. "Sea Level Variation and Trend Analysis by Comparing Mann–Kendall Test and Innovative Trend Analysis in Front of the Red River Delta, Vietnam (1961–2020)" Water 14, no. 11: 1709. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111709

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