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Article

Spatiotemporal Distribution of Drought Based on the Standardized Precipitation Index and Cloud Models in the Haihe Plain, China

1
College of Water Conservancy, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
2
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, US Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92501, USA
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California-Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
4
Irrigation and Drainage Development Center, Beijing 100054, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yared Bayissa, Assefa M. Melesse and Tsegaye Tadesse
Water 2022, 14(11), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111672
Received: 12 April 2022 / Revised: 18 May 2022 / Accepted: 20 May 2022 / Published: 24 May 2022
The Haihe Plain is the largest component of the agriculturally vital North China Plain, and it is characterized by serious water shortage and frequent droughts, which lead to crop reduction and have adverse effects on agriculture and ecology. We used daily precipitation data from 1955–2017; the region’s spatiotemporal characteristics of drought were analyzed by using the standardized precipitation index (SPI), drought probability, and Mann–Kendall test for seasonal scale including two main crops growth seasons for the region’s main crops. Furthermore, a cloud algorithm model was established to analyze the dispersion and instability of the SPI. The annual drought frequency is 28.57%; the SPI for spring has an increasing tendency, while summer shows a significant decreasing trend (p < 0.05); the Haihe Plain has had a tendency towards drought over the last 63 years. The SPI in northwest is the smallest and increases gradually toward the south; the severity of drought in dry years increased from southeast to northwest. The cloud model shows that the SPI randomness of each site decreased significantly and tended to be stable and uniform. The deterministic and stable SPI of each station is stronger in dry years, and the randomness and instability are stronger in wet years. The inter-annual differences of the characteristic values of the SPI cloud model are bigger than the differences among sites, and the inter-annual randomness and inhomogeneity of the SPI are higher. View Full-Text
Keywords: standardized precipitation index; spatiotemporal characteristics; cloud model; homogeneity and stability; Mann-Kendall test standardized precipitation index; spatiotemporal characteristics; cloud model; homogeneity and stability; Mann-Kendall test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Anderson, R.G.; Shi, R.; Wu, D.; Ge, Q. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Drought Based on the Standardized Precipitation Index and Cloud Models in the Haihe Plain, China. Water 2022, 14, 1672. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111672

AMA Style

Fu Y, Zhang X, Anderson RG, Shi R, Wu D, Ge Q. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Drought Based on the Standardized Precipitation Index and Cloud Models in the Haihe Plain, China. Water. 2022; 14(11):1672. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111672

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fu, Yujuan, Xudong Zhang, Ray G. Anderson, Ruiqiang Shi, Di Wu, and Qiucheng Ge. 2022. "Spatiotemporal Distribution of Drought Based on the Standardized Precipitation Index and Cloud Models in the Haihe Plain, China" Water 14, no. 11: 1672. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111672

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