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Article

Integrating Stable Isotopes with Mean Residence Time Estimation to Characterize Groundwater Circulation in a Metamorphic Geothermal Field in Yilan, Taiwan

1
Department of Geology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan
2
Research Center for Soil and Water Resources and Nature Disaster Prevention, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliu 64002, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Barbieri
Water 2022, 14(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010097
Received: 30 October 2021 / Revised: 21 December 2021 / Accepted: 29 December 2021 / Published: 4 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
This paper presents a water circulation model by combing oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes and mean residence time (MRT) estimation in a high-temperature metamorphic geothermal field, Tuchen, in Yilan, Taiwan. A total of 18 months of oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes of surface water and thermal water show the same variation pattern, heavier values in summer and lighter values in the rest of the year. A shift of δ18O with a relative constant δD indicates the slow fluid–rock interaction process in the study area. Two adjacent watersheds, the Tianguer River and Duowang River, exhibit different isotopic values and imply different recharge altitudes. The seasonal variation enabled us to use stable isotope to estimate mean residence time of groundwater in the study area. Two wells, 160 m and 2200 m deep, were used to estimate mean residence time of the groundwater. Deep circulation recharges from higher elevations, with lighter isotopic values, 5.9‰ and 64‰ of δ18O and δD, and a longer mean residence time, 1148 days, while the shallow circulation comes from another source with heavier values, 5.7‰ and 54.4‰ of δ18O and δD, and a shorter mean residence time, 150 days. A two-circulation model was established based on temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of stable isotopes and the assistance of MRT. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the combined usage for further understanding water circulation of other various temperatures of metamorphic geothermalfields. View Full-Text
Keywords: isotopes; geothermal; mean residence time; Tuchen isotopes; geothermal; mean residence time; Tuchen
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuo, C.-H.; Li, P.-Y.; Lin, J.-Y.; Chen, Y.-L. Integrating Stable Isotopes with Mean Residence Time Estimation to Characterize Groundwater Circulation in a Metamorphic Geothermal Field in Yilan, Taiwan. Water 2022, 14, 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010097

AMA Style

Kuo C-H, Li P-Y, Lin J-Y, Chen Y-L. Integrating Stable Isotopes with Mean Residence Time Estimation to Characterize Groundwater Circulation in a Metamorphic Geothermal Field in Yilan, Taiwan. Water. 2022; 14(1):97. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuo, Ching-Huei, Pi-Yi Li, Jun-Yi Lin, and Yi-Lin Chen. 2022. "Integrating Stable Isotopes with Mean Residence Time Estimation to Characterize Groundwater Circulation in a Metamorphic Geothermal Field in Yilan, Taiwan" Water 14, no. 1: 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010097

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