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Article

Culex Mosquitoes at Stormwater Control Measures and Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls after Heavy Rainfall

1
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
2
School of the Environment, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anne W. M. Ng, Nitin Muttil and Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman Tariq
Water 2022, 14(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010031
Received: 18 November 2021 / Revised: 13 December 2021 / Accepted: 20 December 2021 / Published: 23 December 2021
Mosquito borne diseases are increasingly problematic as climate change continues to alter patterns of precipitation, flooding, and temperatures that may favor mosquito habitats. Stormwater control measures (SCMs), ecologically sustainable methods of stormwater management, may have varying impacts on Culex mosquitoes, such as in areas with combined sewer overflows (CSOs). We studied spatial and temporal associations of SCMs and Culex mosquito counts surrounding the SCMs, stratifying our examination amongst those that do/do not use pooling and/or vegetation, as well as surrounding CSO outfalls after heavy rainfall (≥95th percentile) during summer 2018. Results indicate Culex mosquito counts after heavy rainfall were not significantly different at SCMs that use vegetation and/or ponding from at those that do not. We also found a 35.5% reduction in the increase of Culex mosquitoes the day of, and 77.0% reduction 7–8 days after, heavy rainfall at CSO outfalls treated with medium SCM density compared to those without SCMs. Our results suggest that SCMs may be associated with a reduction in the increase of Culex mosquitoes at the CSO outfalls after heavy rainfall. More research is needed to study how the impacts of SCMs on mosquito populations may affect human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: stormwater control measures; green stormwater infrastructure; combined sewer overflows; Culex mosquitoes; distributed lag stormwater control measures; green stormwater infrastructure; combined sewer overflows; Culex mosquitoes; distributed lag
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chan, A.Y.; Kim, H.; Bell, M.L. Culex Mosquitoes at Stormwater Control Measures and Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls after Heavy Rainfall. Water 2022, 14, 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010031

AMA Style

Chan AY, Kim H, Bell ML. Culex Mosquitoes at Stormwater Control Measures and Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls after Heavy Rainfall. Water. 2022; 14(1):31. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010031

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chan, Alisha Y., Honghyok Kim, and Michelle L. Bell. 2022. "Culex Mosquitoes at Stormwater Control Measures and Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls after Heavy Rainfall" Water 14, no. 1: 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010031

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