Hot-water drilling in ice with near-bottom circulation is more advantageous than traditional hot-water drilling with all-over borehole circulation in terms of power consumption and weight. However, the drilling performance of this type of drill has been poorly studied. Initial experiments showed that drilling with single-orifice nozzles did not proceed smoothly. To achieve the best drilling performance, nozzles with different orifice numbers and structures are evaluated in the present study. The testing results show that a single-orifice nozzle with a 3 mm nozzle diameter and a nine-jet nozzle with a forward angle of 35° had the highest rate of penetration (1.7–1.8 m h−1
) with 5.6–6.0 kW heating power. However, the nozzles with backward holes ensured a smoother drilling process and a larger borehole, although the rate of penetration was approximately 13% slower. A comparison of the hollow and solid thermal tips showed that under the same experimental conditions, the hollow drill tip had a lower flow rate, higher outlet temperature, and higher rate of penetration. This study provides a prominent reference for drilling performance prediction and drilling technology development of hot-water drilling in ice with near-bottom circulation.
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