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Article

Heavy Metals and Nutrients Loads in Water, Soil, and Crops Irrigated with Effluent from WWTPs in Blantyre City, Malawi

Physics and Biochemical Sciences Department, Malawi University of Business and Applied Sciences (MUBAS), P/Bag 303, Chichiri 312225, Blantyre 3, Malawi
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Academic Editor: Stavroula Tsitsifli
Water 2022, 14(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010121
Received: 29 September 2021 / Revised: 10 November 2021 / Accepted: 13 November 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspective on Water Security Management)
Heavy metals may cause acute and chronic toxic effects to humans and other organisms, hence the need to treat wastewater properly, as it contains these toxicants. This work aimed at assessing zinc, copper, cadmium, and chromium in water, soil, and plants that are irrigated with effluent from Manase and Soche Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Blantyre, Malawi. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) was used to assess the heavy metals. Heavy Metal Health Risk Assessment (HMHRA) on plants (vegetables) around both WWTPs was also conducted. Average daily dose (ADD) and target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to assess HMHRA. Physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods from American Public Health Association (APHA). The heavy metal ranges were below detection limit (BDL) to 6.94 mg/L in water, 0.0003 to 4.48 mg/kg in soil, and 3 to 32 mg/L in plants. The results revealed that plants irrigated with effluent from WWTP had high values of aforementioned metals exceeding the Malawi Standards and WHO permissible limits. Furthermore, the health risk assessment values showed that vegetables consumed for a long period of time from Manase WWTP were likely to cause adverse health effects as compared to those from Soche WWTP. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; health risk assessment; wastewater; biological parameters; wastewater treatment plants heavy metals; health risk assessment; wastewater; biological parameters; wastewater treatment plants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Malikula, R.S.; Kaonga, C.C.; Mapoma, H.W.T.; Thulu, F.G.D.; Chiipa, P. Heavy Metals and Nutrients Loads in Water, Soil, and Crops Irrigated with Effluent from WWTPs in Blantyre City, Malawi. Water 2022, 14, 121. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010121

AMA Style

Malikula RS, Kaonga CC, Mapoma HWT, Thulu FGD, Chiipa P. Heavy Metals and Nutrients Loads in Water, Soil, and Crops Irrigated with Effluent from WWTPs in Blantyre City, Malawi. Water. 2022; 14(1):121. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010121

Chicago/Turabian Style

Malikula, Raymond S., Chikumbusko C. Kaonga, Harold W.T. Mapoma, Fabiano G.D. Thulu, and Petra Chiipa. 2022. "Heavy Metals and Nutrients Loads in Water, Soil, and Crops Irrigated with Effluent from WWTPs in Blantyre City, Malawi" Water 14, no. 1: 121. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010121

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