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Article

Photocatalytic ZnO-Assisted Degradation of Spiramycin in Urban Wastewater: Degradation Kinetics and Toxicity

1
Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LIEC, F-57000 Metz, France
2
Centro Servizi Metrologici e Tecnologici Avanzati (CeSMA), University of Naples Federico II, Via Cinthia 21, 80126 Naples, Italy
3
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, via Cinthia ed. 7, 80126 Naples, Italy
4
Department of Chemical and Biology “A. Zambelli”, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiangyong Hu
Water 2021, 13(8), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081051
Received: 25 January 2021 / Revised: 31 March 2021 / Accepted: 3 April 2021 / Published: 11 April 2021
The removal of contaminants of emerging concern from urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) remains a challenge to promote safe wastewater reuse practices. Macrolides are the most abundant antibiotics detected in untreated wastewater and their concentration in WWTPs effluents is only partially reduced by conventional treatments. Among several advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), photocatalysis has demonstrated the capability to effectively remove pharmaceuticals from different aqueous matrices. Recently, ZnO has emerged as an efficient, promising, and less expensive alternative to TiO2, due to its photocatalytic capability and attitude to exploit better the solar spectrum than TiO2. In this study, the behaviors of ZnO photocatalysis were evaluated using a representative macrolide antibiotic, spiramycin (SPY), in aqueous solutions and urban wastewater. After 80 min of photocatalysis, 95–99% removal of SPY was achieved at 1 g L−1 ZnO concentrations in aqueous solutions and wastewater, respectively. After treatment, the effluent toxicity, evaluated using the bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri, the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata, and the crustacean Daphnia magna ranged between slight acute and high acute hazard. Filterable and ultrafilterable Zn concentrations were quantified in treated effluents and shown to be high enough to contribute to the observed toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; photocatalysis; zinc oxide; wastewater antibiotics; photocatalysis; zinc oxide; wastewater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vignati, D.A.L.; Lofrano, G.; Libralato, G.; Guida, M.; Siciliano, A.; Carraturo, F.; Carotenuto, M. Photocatalytic ZnO-Assisted Degradation of Spiramycin in Urban Wastewater: Degradation Kinetics and Toxicity. Water 2021, 13, 1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081051

AMA Style

Vignati DAL, Lofrano G, Libralato G, Guida M, Siciliano A, Carraturo F, Carotenuto M. Photocatalytic ZnO-Assisted Degradation of Spiramycin in Urban Wastewater: Degradation Kinetics and Toxicity. Water. 2021; 13(8):1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081051

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vignati, Davide A.L.; Lofrano, Giusy; Libralato, Giovanni; Guida, Marco; Siciliano, Antonietta; Carraturo, Federica; Carotenuto, Maurizio. 2021. "Photocatalytic ZnO-Assisted Degradation of Spiramycin in Urban Wastewater: Degradation Kinetics and Toxicity" Water 13, no. 8: 1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081051

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