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Article

PISCO_HyM_GR2M: A Model of Monthly Water Balance in Peru (1981–2020)

1
Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú (SENAMHI), Lima 15072, Peru
2
Laboratoire GET (IRD, CNRS, UPS, CNES), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, 31400 Toulouse, France
3
Centro de Investigación y Tecnología del Agua (CITA), Departamento de Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología (UTEC), Lima 15063, Peru
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Koichiro Kuraji 
Water 2021, 13(8), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081048
Received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 10 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
Quantification of the surface water offer is crucial for its management. In Peru, the low spatial density of hydrometric stations makes this task challenging. This work aims to evaluate the hydrological performance of a monthly water balance model in Peru using precipitation and evapotranspiration data from the high-resolution meteorological PISCO dataset, which has been developed by the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology of Peru (SENAMHI). A regionalization approach based on Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (FAST) of the rainfall-runoff (RR) and runoff variability (RV) indices defined 14 calibration regions nationwide. Next, the GR2M model was used at a semi-distributed scale in 3594 sub-basins and river streams to simulate monthly discharges from January 1981 to March 2020. Model performance was evaluated using the Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE), square root transferred Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSEsqrt), and water balance error (WBE) metrics. The results show a very well representation of monthly discharges for a large portion of Peruvian sub-basins (KGE ≥ 0.75, NSEsqrt ≥ 0.65, and −0.29 < WBE < 0.23). Finally, this study introduces a product of continuous monthly discharge rates in Peru, named PISCO_HyM_GR2M, to understand surface water balance in data-scarce sub-basins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Peru; water balance model; GR2M; PISCO product; Fourier Amplitude Test Peru; water balance model; GR2M; PISCO product; Fourier Amplitude Test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Llauca, H.; Lavado-Casimiro, W.; Montesinos, C.; Santini, W.; Rau, P. PISCO_HyM_GR2M: A Model of Monthly Water Balance in Peru (1981–2020). Water 2021, 13, 1048. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081048

AMA Style

Llauca H, Lavado-Casimiro W, Montesinos C, Santini W, Rau P. PISCO_HyM_GR2M: A Model of Monthly Water Balance in Peru (1981–2020). Water. 2021; 13(8):1048. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081048

Chicago/Turabian Style

Llauca, Harold; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Montesinos, Cristian; Santini, William; Rau, Pedro. 2021. "PISCO_HyM_GR2M: A Model of Monthly Water Balance in Peru (1981–2020)" Water 13, no. 8: 1048. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081048

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