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Open AccessArticle

Detecting Climate Driven Changes in Chlorophyll-a in Deep Subalpine Lakes Using Long Term Satellite Data

1
Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, National Research Council, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
3
Water Research Institute, National Research Council, 28922 Verbania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rolf David Vogt
Water 2021, 13(6), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060866
Received: 25 February 2021 / Revised: 17 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
Climate change has increased the temperature and altered the mixing regime of high-value lakes in the subalpine region of Northern Italy. Remote sensing of chlorophyll-a can help provide a time series to allow an assessment of the ecological implications of this. Non-parametric multiplicative regression (NPMR) was used to visualize and understand the changes that have occurred between 2003–2018 in Lakes Garda, Como, Iseo, and Maggiore. In all four deep subalpine lakes, there has been a disruption from a traditional pattern of a significant spring chlorophyll-a peak followed by a clear water phase and summer/autumn peaks. This was replaced after 2010–2012, with lower spring peaks and a tendency for annual maxima to occur in summer. There was a tendency for this switch to be interspersed by a two-year period of low chlorophyll-a. Variables that were significant in NPMR included time, air temperature, total phosphorus, winter temperature, and winter values for the North Atlantic Oscillation. The change from spring to summer chlorophyll-a maxima, relatively sudden in an ecological context, could be interpreted as a regime shift. The cause was probably cascading effects from increased winter temperatures, reduced winter mixing, and altered nutrient dynamics. Future trends will depend on climate change and inter-decadal climate drivers. View Full-Text
Keywords: global warming; oligo-mesotrophic lakes; optical sensors global warming; oligo-mesotrophic lakes; optical sensors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Free, G.; Bresciani, M.; Pinardi, M.; Ghirardi, N.; Luciani, G.; Caroni, R.; Giardino, C. Detecting Climate Driven Changes in Chlorophyll-a in Deep Subalpine Lakes Using Long Term Satellite Data. Water 2021, 13, 866. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060866

AMA Style

Free G, Bresciani M, Pinardi M, Ghirardi N, Luciani G, Caroni R, Giardino C. Detecting Climate Driven Changes in Chlorophyll-a in Deep Subalpine Lakes Using Long Term Satellite Data. Water. 2021; 13(6):866. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060866

Chicago/Turabian Style

Free, Gary; Bresciani, Mariano; Pinardi, Monica; Ghirardi, Nicola; Luciani, Giulia; Caroni, Rossana; Giardino, Claudia. 2021. "Detecting Climate Driven Changes in Chlorophyll-a in Deep Subalpine Lakes Using Long Term Satellite Data" Water 13, no. 6: 866. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060866

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