Next Article in Journal
Water–Food Nexus through the Lens of Virtual Water Flows: The Case of India
Next Article in Special Issue
Communicating Managed Retreat in California
Previous Article in Journal
A Proposal to Classify and Assess Ecological Status in Mediterranean Temporary Rivers: Research Insights to Solve Management Needs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Quantifying Uncertainty in Exposure to Coastal Hazards Associated with Both Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies: A U.S. Pacific Northwest Alternative Coastal Futures Analysis
Open AccessArticle

Impact of Sea-Level Rise on the Hydrologic Landscape of the Mānā Plain, Kaua‘i

Department of Geography and Environment, University of Hawai‘i, Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Academic Editors: Borja G. Reguero and Gary B. Griggs
Water 2021, 13(6), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060766
Received: 10 February 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 9 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation to Coastal Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise)
The Mānā Plain is a land apart, buffered from oceanographic influences by ~3–35 m high backshore deposits, and drained by an intricate, >100-y-old ditch system and modern, large-capacity pumps. Quantifying present and prospective inputs and outputs for the hydrologic landscape suggests that, although sea-level rise (SLR) will begin to impact ditch system operations in 2040, transient, event-based flooding caused by rainfall, not SLR induced, multi-mechanism flooding, will continue to pose the most immediate threat. This is because as sea level rises the ability of gravity flows to discharge storm runoff directly into the ocean will diminish, causing floodwater to pond in low-lying depressions. Estimates of the volume of water involved suggests the risk of flooding from surface water is likely to extend to 5.45 km2 of land that is presently ≤ 1 m above sea level. This land will not be permanently inundated, but weeks of pumping may be required to remove the floodwater. Increasing pumping capacity and preserving some operational ability to discharge storm runoff under the influence of gravity will enhance the ditch system’s resilience to SLR and ensure it continues to fulfill its primary functions, of maintaining the water table below the root zone and diverting storm runoff away from farmland, at least until the end of this century. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal plain; drainage ditch system; hydrologic landscape; Hawai‘i; sea level rise coastal plain; drainage ditch system; hydrologic landscape; Hawai‘i; sea level rise
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gomez, B. Impact of Sea-Level Rise on the Hydrologic Landscape of the Mānā Plain, Kaua‘i. Water 2021, 13, 766. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060766

AMA Style

Gomez B. Impact of Sea-Level Rise on the Hydrologic Landscape of the Mānā Plain, Kaua‘i. Water. 2021; 13(6):766. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060766

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gomez, Basil. 2021. "Impact of Sea-Level Rise on the Hydrologic Landscape of the Mānā Plain, Kaua‘i" Water 13, no. 6: 766. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060766

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop