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Optimization and Analysis of a Slow-Release Permanganate Gel for Groundwater Remediation in Porous and Low-Permeability Media

Department of Geological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
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Academic Editor: Constantinos V. Chrysikopoulos
Water 2021, 13(6), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060755
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 20 February 2021 / Accepted: 3 March 2021 / Published: 10 March 2021
Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) like trichloroethylene (TCE) serve as the most common form of groundwater pollution in the world. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is a strong oxidant that can quickly destroy DNAPLs into innocuous products. Slow-release permanganate gel (SRPG), a mixture of colloidal silica (CS) and KMnO4, has been recently developed as novel treatment option for dilute and large plumes of DNAPLs in groundwater. The objective of this study was to characterize and optimize gelling and release properties of a SRPG solution in saturated porous media. It was hypothesized that CS and KMnO4 content of the SRPG constrain gelation and release duration. Batch and column tests showed that gelation could be delayed through manipulation of the KMnO4 content. In column tests, silica content had little effect on the gelation lag stage and release rate but influenced duration of permanganate release. Flow tank tests comparing Bindzil 1440 (B-40) SRPGs with pure KMnO4 solutions under varying media conditions demonstrated that the presence of CS enhanced lateral spread and prolonged release duration of the oxidant. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; slow-release permanganate gel; groundwater; remediation; DNAPL groundwater; slow-release permanganate gel; groundwater; remediation; DNAPL
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hastings, J.L.; Lee, E.S. Optimization and Analysis of a Slow-Release Permanganate Gel for Groundwater Remediation in Porous and Low-Permeability Media. Water 2021, 13, 755. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060755

AMA Style

Hastings JL, Lee ES. Optimization and Analysis of a Slow-Release Permanganate Gel for Groundwater Remediation in Porous and Low-Permeability Media. Water. 2021; 13(6):755. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060755

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hastings, Jesse L.; Lee, Eung S. 2021. "Optimization and Analysis of a Slow-Release Permanganate Gel for Groundwater Remediation in Porous and Low-Permeability Media" Water 13, no. 6: 755. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060755

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