Next Article in Journal
A Review of 50 Years of Study of Hydrology, Wetland Dynamics, Aquatic Metabolism, Water Quality and Trophic Status, and Nutrient Biogeochemistry in the Barataria Basin, Mississippi Delta—System Functioning, Human Impacts and Restoration Approaches
Next Article in Special Issue
A Numerical Validation of 3D Experimental Dam-Break Wave Interaction with a Sharp Obstacle Using DualSPHysics
Previous Article in Journal
Acoustic Telemetry Monitors Movements of Wild Adult Catfishes in the Mekong River, Thailand and Laos
 
 
Article

Analysis of MNF and FAVAD Model for Leakage Characterization by Exploiting Smart-Metered Data: The Case of the Gorino Ferrarese (FE-Italy) District

Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Inmaculada Pulido-Calvo
Water 2021, 13(5), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050643
Received: 27 January 2021 / Revised: 23 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 27 February 2021
Leakages in water distribution systems have great economic and environmental impacts and are a major issue for water utilities. In this work, the water balance and the Minimum Night Flow (MNF) method for evaluating the amount of water loss, as well as the power and Fixed and Variable Area Discharge (FAVAD) equations for analyzing the relationship between leakage and pressure, were applied to a fully monitored District Metered Area (DMA) located in Gorino Ferrarese (FE, Italy). Time series of (a) the water consumption of each user, (b) the DMA inflow, and (c) the pressure at the DMA inlet point were monitored with a 5 min time step. The results of an analysis carried out by exploiting the collected time series highlighted that: (a) The application of the MNF method based on literature values can lead to significant inaccuracies in the presence of users with irregular consumption, and (b) the estimation of the parameters of the power and FAVAD equations is highly affected by the amounts and types of observed data used. View Full-Text
Keywords: water losses; Minimum Night Flow; FAVAD equation; power equation water losses; Minimum Night Flow; FAVAD equation; power equation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Marzola, I.; Alvisi, S.; Franchini, M. Analysis of MNF and FAVAD Model for Leakage Characterization by Exploiting Smart-Metered Data: The Case of the Gorino Ferrarese (FE-Italy) District. Water 2021, 13, 643. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050643

AMA Style

Marzola I, Alvisi S, Franchini M. Analysis of MNF and FAVAD Model for Leakage Characterization by Exploiting Smart-Metered Data: The Case of the Gorino Ferrarese (FE-Italy) District. Water. 2021; 13(5):643. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050643

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marzola, Irene, Stefano Alvisi, and Marco Franchini. 2021. "Analysis of MNF and FAVAD Model for Leakage Characterization by Exploiting Smart-Metered Data: The Case of the Gorino Ferrarese (FE-Italy) District" Water 13, no. 5: 643. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050643

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop