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Article

A Hybrid Biological-Adsorption Approach for the Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater Using Immobilized Nanoclay-Algae Mixtures

1
Engineering Department, Carroll College, Helena, MT 59625, USA
2
Civil and Environmental Engineering and the National Water Center, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain P.O. Box 15551, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
3
Civil Engineering Department, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA
4
Department of Bio and Nano Technology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001, Haryana, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: James A. Smith and Caetano C. Dorea
Water 2021, 13(5), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050633
Received: 13 January 2021 / Revised: 19 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 27 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Use Water Treatment)
Mixing the Scenedesmus species with nanoclay and immobilizing in sodium alginate was evaluated as a sustainable treatment method for removing nitrate, atrazine, and metals from groundwater. Gel beads containing the hybrid mixture removed 100% of 10 mg/L N nitrate and 98% of 100 µg/L atrazine from synthetic groundwater in three days. The optimal amount of nanoclay was found to be 0.30 mg per bead. The experimental data fit well into a Freundlich adsorption isotherm and followed pseudo first-order kinetics. When tested in actual groundwater, 91% of nitrate and 100% of Cr, Se, and V were eliminated in three days without need for any nutrients or carbon source. Immobilizing algal beads embedded with nanoclay is a natural, low-cost alternative for groundwater treatment. The gel beads can be reused for at least two cycles without a compromise in performance. They are water-insoluble, easy to harvest, and offer high removal efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: Scenedesmus species; biological treatment; adsorption; nitrate removal; atrazine removal; nanoclay Scenedesmus species; biological treatment; adsorption; nitrate removal; atrazine removal; nanoclay
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mollamohammada, S.; Aly Hassan, A.; Dahab, M.; Kumar, S. A Hybrid Biological-Adsorption Approach for the Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater Using Immobilized Nanoclay-Algae Mixtures. Water 2021, 13, 633. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050633

AMA Style

Mollamohammada S, Aly Hassan A, Dahab M, Kumar S. A Hybrid Biological-Adsorption Approach for the Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater Using Immobilized Nanoclay-Algae Mixtures. Water. 2021; 13(5):633. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050633

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mollamohammada, Sara, Ashraf Aly Hassan, Mohamed Dahab, and Sandeep Kumar. 2021. "A Hybrid Biological-Adsorption Approach for the Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater Using Immobilized Nanoclay-Algae Mixtures" Water 13, no. 5: 633. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050633

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