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Open AccessArticle

Electrically Induced Liquid–Liquid Phase Transition in a Floating Water Bridge Identified by Refractive Index Variations

1
Wetsus—European Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, 8911MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
2
Working Group Metrology–Laser Optical Metrology, Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 25A, 8010 Graz, Austria
3
Protodromics LLC, Melbourne, FL 32901, USA
4
Process and Energy Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 39, 2628 CB Delft, The Netherlands
5
Dipartimento di Fisica ‘‘E.R.Caianiello’’, Università di Salerno, I-84100 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giuseppe Pezzinga and Nils Tångefjord Basse
Water 2021, 13(5), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050602
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experiments in a Floating Water Bridge and Electrified Water)
A horizontal electrohydrodynamic (EHD) liquid bridge (also known as a “floating water bridge”) is a phenomenon that forms when high voltage DC (kV·cm−1) is applied to pure water in two separate beakers. The bridge, a free-floating connection between the beakers, acts as a cylindrical lens and refracts light. Using an interferometric set-up with a line pattern placed in the background of the bridge, the light passing through is split into a horizontally and a vertically polarized component which are both projected into the image space in front of the bridge with a small vertical offset (shear). Apart from a 100 Hz waviness due to a resonance effect between the power supply and vortical structures at the onset of the bridge, spikes with an increased refractive index moving through the bridge were observed. These spikes can be explained by an electrically induced liquid–liquid phase transition in which the vibrational modes of the water molecules couple coherently. View Full-Text
Keywords: floating water bridge; interferometry; liquid–liquid phase transition floating water bridge; interferometry; liquid–liquid phase transition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fuchs, E.C.; Woisetschläger, J.; Wexler, A.D.; Pecnik, R.; Vitiello, G. Electrically Induced Liquid–Liquid Phase Transition in a Floating Water Bridge Identified by Refractive Index Variations. Water 2021, 13, 602. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050602

AMA Style

Fuchs EC, Woisetschläger J, Wexler AD, Pecnik R, Vitiello G. Electrically Induced Liquid–Liquid Phase Transition in a Floating Water Bridge Identified by Refractive Index Variations. Water. 2021; 13(5):602. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050602

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fuchs, Elmar C.; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Wexler, Adam D.; Pecnik, Rene; Vitiello, Giuseppe. 2021. "Electrically Induced Liquid–Liquid Phase Transition in a Floating Water Bridge Identified by Refractive Index Variations" Water 13, no. 5: 602. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050602

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