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Open AccessArticle

Nutrient Load Mitigation with Wintertime Cover as Estimated by the INCA Model

1
Biodiversity Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
2
Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural Resources, Water Quality Impacts, 31600 Jokioinen, Finland
3
Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, 750-07 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Hein
Water 2021, 13(4), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040450
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 28 January 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 9 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Catchment Biogeochemical and Hydrological Modelling)
Increased nutrient loading causes deterioration of receiving surface waters in areas of intensive agriculture. While nitrate and particulate phosphorus load can be efficiently controlled by reducing tillage frequency and increasing vegetation cover, many field studies have shown simultaneously increased loading of bioavailable phosphorus. In the latest phase of the Rural Programme of EU agri-environmental measures, the highest potential to reduce the nutrient loading to receiving waters were the maximum limits for fertilization of arable crops and retaining plant cover on fields with, e.g., no-till methods and uncultivated nature management fields. Due to the latter two measures, the area of vegetation cover has increased since 1995, suggesting clear effects on nutrient loading in the catchment scale as well. We modeled the effectiveness of agri-environmental measures to reduce phosphorus and nitrogen loads to waters and additionally tested the performance of the dynamic, process-based INCA-P (Integrated Nutrients in Catchments—Phosphorus) model to simulate P dynamics in an agricultural catchment. We concluded that INCA-P was able to simulate both fast (immediate) and slow (non-immediate) processes that influence P loading from catchments. Based on our model simulations, it was also evident that no-till methods had increased bioavailable P load to receiving waters, even though total P and total N loading were reduced. View Full-Text
Keywords: mathematical modeling; agricultural policy; wintertime vegetation cover; dissolved reactive phosphorus mathematical modeling; agricultural policy; wintertime vegetation cover; dissolved reactive phosphorus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rankinen, K.; Turtola, E.; Lemola, R.; Futter, M.; Cano Bernal, J.E. Nutrient Load Mitigation with Wintertime Cover as Estimated by the INCA Model. Water 2021, 13, 450. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040450

AMA Style

Rankinen K, Turtola E, Lemola R, Futter M, Cano Bernal JE. Nutrient Load Mitigation with Wintertime Cover as Estimated by the INCA Model. Water. 2021; 13(4):450. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040450

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rankinen, Katri; Turtola, Eila; Lemola, Riitta; Futter, Martyn; Cano Bernal, José E. 2021. "Nutrient Load Mitigation with Wintertime Cover as Estimated by the INCA Model" Water 13, no. 4: 450. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040450

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