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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Multi-Biomarker Responses of Asian Clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia, Corbiculidea) to Cadmium and Microplastics Pollutants

1
Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2
Institute for Research and Innovation in Health, Laboratory Animal Science, Insti-tute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
3
Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Subida a Radio Faro, 50, 36390 Vigo, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michele Mistri
Water 2021, 13(4), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040394
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 28 January 2021 / Accepted: 30 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Biophysical Ecosystem Health)
One of the most widespread aquatic organisms in the rivers and estuarine ecosystems, in the world, is Asian clam Corbiculafluminea. This clam, that can adapt to environmental changes, is an invasive species in several areas and it was adopted as a model for toxicity tests. This study evaluated the effects of the exposure to cadmium (Cd), to microplastics (MPs) and their mixtures on C. fluminea. The oxidative stress responses, lipid peroxidation (LPO), changes in the activity of energy-related enzymes and neurotoxicity were assessed on the gill, digestive gland and gonad. The results show that Cd, MPs and their mixtures cause oxidative stress, damage and neurotoxicity. The enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the LPO levels could be chosen as biomarkers of Cd pollution. Exposure to MPs induced an increase in reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio and increased AChE activity. The combined exposure to Cd and MPs caused a synergetic effect in gill and gonad, while an antagonism response was recorded in the digestive gland. The results provide new insights for unveiling the biologic effects of heavy metal, microplastics and their mixtures on C. fluminea. Besides, we demonstrated that the Asian clam is a good bioindicator of microplastic pollution that can occur in aquatic environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioindicator; stress responses; freshwater bivalves; gill; digestive gland; gonad bioindicator; stress responses; freshwater bivalves; gill; digestive gland; gonad
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MDPI and ACS Style

Parra, S.; Varandas, S.; Santos, D.; Félix, L.; Fernandes, L.; Cabecinha, E.; Gago, J.; Monteiro, S.M. Multi-Biomarker Responses of Asian Clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia, Corbiculidea) to Cadmium and Microplastics Pollutants. Water 2021, 13, 394. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040394

AMA Style

Parra S, Varandas S, Santos D, Félix L, Fernandes L, Cabecinha E, Gago J, Monteiro SM. Multi-Biomarker Responses of Asian Clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia, Corbiculidea) to Cadmium and Microplastics Pollutants. Water. 2021; 13(4):394. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040394

Chicago/Turabian Style

Parra, Susana; Varandas, Simone; Santos, Dércia; Félix, Luís; Fernandes, Lisete; Cabecinha, Edna; Gago, Jesús; Monteiro, Sandra M. 2021. "Multi-Biomarker Responses of Asian Clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia, Corbiculidea) to Cadmium and Microplastics Pollutants" Water 13, no. 4: 394. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040394

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