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Article

Operationalizing Water Security Concept in Water Investment Planning: Case Study of São Francisco River Basin

1
Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia
2
Brazilian National Water and Sanitation Agency, Setor Policial Sul, Área 5, Quadra 3, Brasília 70610-200, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brian Richter
Water 2021, 13(24), 3658; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243658
Received: 15 November 2021 / Revised: 12 December 2021 / Accepted: 16 December 2021 / Published: 20 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Scarcity and Conservation)
Despite advances in water resources management and planning, the São Francisco River Basin in Brazil has suffered from systematic drought problems in recent years, leading to severe human and environmental water security threats. This paper aims to track the water security for different periods and its relations with the changes in physical and natural asset conditions. The paper explores how investment planning to mitigate the water security threats and explore opportunities to increase the value of investments. The paper finds that grey infrastructure has regulated threats from increasing in the downstream of the river basin, however, continuous increase in water security threats in the upstream of the basin threatens water security downstream. This is evident from the spatial connectivity and unidirection externalities. As the capacity to further increase in grey investment is reaching its limit in the downstream, the increases in green infrastructure investment upstream, especially in the Grande River basin, could be one the way to reduce the externalities and minimise the water security risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: water security threats; grey investments; green investments; principal component analysis water security threats; grey investments; green investments; principal component analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Teixeira, A.L.d.F.; Bhaduri, A.; Bunn, S.E.; Ayrimoraes, S.R. Operationalizing Water Security Concept in Water Investment Planning: Case Study of São Francisco River Basin. Water 2021, 13, 3658. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243658

AMA Style

Teixeira ALdF, Bhaduri A, Bunn SE, Ayrimoraes SR. Operationalizing Water Security Concept in Water Investment Planning: Case Study of São Francisco River Basin. Water. 2021; 13(24):3658. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243658

Chicago/Turabian Style

Teixeira, Alexandre L.d.F., Anik Bhaduri, Stuart E. Bunn, and Sérgio R. Ayrimoraes. 2021. "Operationalizing Water Security Concept in Water Investment Planning: Case Study of São Francisco River Basin" Water 13, no. 24: 3658. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243658

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