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Article

Modelling Snowmelt Runoff from Tropical Andean Glaciers under Climate Change Scenarios in the Santa River Sub-Basin (Peru)

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Programa de Doctorado en Recursos Hídricos (PDRH), Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Ave. La Molina, S.N., Lima 15012, Peru
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Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional del Altiplano de Puno, Puno 21001, Peru
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Dirección de Desarrollo Tecnológico Agrario, Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria, Ave. La Molina, 1981, Lima 15024, Peru
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Instituto de Investigación para el Desarrollo Sustentable de Ceja de Selva (INDES-CES), Universidad Nacional Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza de Amazonas (UNTRM), Chachapoyas 01001, Peru
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Departamento de Biología, Área de Botánica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle Darwin 2, ES-28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zheng Duan
Water 2021, 13(24), 3535; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243535
Received: 16 November 2021 / Revised: 5 December 2021 / Accepted: 8 December 2021 / Published: 10 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Effects of climate change have led to a reduction in precipitation and an increase in temperature across several areas of the world. This has resulted in a sharp decline of glaciers and an increase in surface runoff in watersheds due to snowmelt. This situation requires a better understanding to improve the management of water resources in settled areas downstream of glaciers. In this study, the snowmelt runoff model (SRM) was applied in combination with snow-covered area information (SCA), precipitation, and temperature climatic data to model snowmelt runoff in the Santa River sub-basin (Peru). The procedure consisted of calibrating and validating the SRM model for 2005–2009 using the SRTM digital elevation model (DEM), observed temperature, precipitation and SAC data. Then, the SRM was applied to project future runoff in the sub-basin under the climate change scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. SRM patterns show consistent results; runoff decreases in the summer months and increases the rest of the year. The runoff projection under climate change scenarios shows a substantial increase from January to May, reporting the highest increases in March and April, and the lowest records from June to August. The SRM demonstrated consistent projections for the simulation of historical flows in tropical Andean glaciers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cordillera Blanca (CB); glaciers; climate change; water; Google Earth Engine (GEE); snowmelt runoff model (SRM) Cordillera Blanca (CB); glaciers; climate change; water; Google Earth Engine (GEE); snowmelt runoff model (SRM)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Calizaya, E.; Mejía, A.; Barboza, E.; Calizaya, F.; Corroto, F.; Salas, R.; Vásquez, H.; Turpo, E. Modelling Snowmelt Runoff from Tropical Andean Glaciers under Climate Change Scenarios in the Santa River Sub-Basin (Peru). Water 2021, 13, 3535. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243535

AMA Style

Calizaya E, Mejía A, Barboza E, Calizaya F, Corroto F, Salas R, Vásquez H, Turpo E. Modelling Snowmelt Runoff from Tropical Andean Glaciers under Climate Change Scenarios in the Santa River Sub-Basin (Peru). Water. 2021; 13(24):3535. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243535

Chicago/Turabian Style

Calizaya, Elmer, Abel Mejía, Elgar Barboza, Fredy Calizaya, Fernando Corroto, Rolando Salas, Héctor Vásquez, and Efrain Turpo. 2021. "Modelling Snowmelt Runoff from Tropical Andean Glaciers under Climate Change Scenarios in the Santa River Sub-Basin (Peru)" Water 13, no. 24: 3535. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243535

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