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Article

Phytoplankton Growth Rate and Microzooplankton Grazing under Conditions of Climatic Changes and Anthropogenic Pollution in the Coastal Waters of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Region)

Department of Ecological Physiology of Algae, A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, RU-299011 Sevastopol, Russia
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Academic Editors: Agnieszka Napiórkowska-Krzebietke, Justyna Kobos and Aleksandra Zgrundo
Water 2021, 13(22), 3230; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223230
Received: 23 September 2021 / Revised: 29 October 2021 / Accepted: 10 November 2021 / Published: 14 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytoplankton and Phytobenthos: From Freshwater to Marine Ecosystems)
In the coastal waters of the Black Sea near Sevastopol, a gradual temperature elevation and an increase in anthropogenic pressure since the early 2000s have caused significant structural and functional changes in phytoplankton. Currently, there is a significant decrease in the contribution of small diatom species (Skeletonema sp. and Chaetoceros socialis H.S.Lauder as well as coccolithophorids Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W.W.Hay and H.P.Mohler) to the total phytoplankton biomass in these waters. Previously these species caused regular weak blooms. In the warm periods (from May to October), during which the main phytoplankton biomass is formed, large diatom species Pseudosolenia calcar-avis (Schultze) B.G.Sundström, 1986, Proboscia alata (Brightwell) Sundström and dinoflagellates predominate. Therefore, the maximum values of the phytoplankton community’s specific growth rate are about two times lower than in the preceding periods and do not exceed 1.10–1.40 day−1. There was also a decrease observed in the microzooplankton grazing rate, which, during the year, was no higher than 0.70–1.20 day−1. This is primarily conditioned by the increased role of large algae in phytoplankton, which means a decline in nutrition quality for microzooplankton. As a result of the joint influence of nutrition quality and water pollution, the relative share of net primary production consumed by microzooplankton in the warm periods of the year averaged only 32%, which is two times lower than the average values generally accepted for marine ecosystems. This means that the transfer of matter and energy from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels is significantly decreased. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytoplankton; Black Sea; climatic changes; anthropogenic pressure; phytoplankton growth rate; microzooplankton grazing phytoplankton; Black Sea; climatic changes; anthropogenic pressure; phytoplankton growth rate; microzooplankton grazing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stelmakh, L.; Kovrigina, N. Phytoplankton Growth Rate and Microzooplankton Grazing under Conditions of Climatic Changes and Anthropogenic Pollution in the Coastal Waters of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Region). Water 2021, 13, 3230. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223230

AMA Style

Stelmakh L, Kovrigina N. Phytoplankton Growth Rate and Microzooplankton Grazing under Conditions of Climatic Changes and Anthropogenic Pollution in the Coastal Waters of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Region). Water. 2021; 13(22):3230. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223230

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stelmakh, Lyudmyla, and Nelya Kovrigina. 2021. "Phytoplankton Growth Rate and Microzooplankton Grazing under Conditions of Climatic Changes and Anthropogenic Pollution in the Coastal Waters of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Region)" Water 13, no. 22: 3230. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223230

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