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Article

Multi-Actor Platforms in the Water–Agriculture Nexus: Synergies and Long-Term Meaningful Engagement

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Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Økernveien 94, 0579 Oslo, Norway
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Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
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Royal HaskoningDHV, P.O. Box 8064, 9702 KB Groningen, The Netherlands
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Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Groningen University, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
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Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 18a Newforge Ln, Belfast BT9 5PX, UK
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Department of Agriculture, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Department of Quaternary and Groundwater Mapping, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), C.F. Møllers Allé 8, Building 1110, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
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Research Centre for Natural Resources, Environment and Society (CERNAS), Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Bencanta, 3045-601 Coimbra, Portugal
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Lincoln Institute for Agri-Food Technology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK
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Chamber of Agriculture of the Federal State of Lower Saxony, District Office of Braunschweig, Helene-Künne-Allee 5, 38122 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helén M. Ingram
Water 2021, 13(22), 3204; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223204
Received: 30 September 2021 / Revised: 29 October 2021 / Accepted: 3 November 2021 / Published: 12 November 2021
Solutions to current complex environmental challenges demand the consultation and involvement of various groups in society. In light of the WFD’s requirements of public participation, this paper presents an analysis of the establishment and development of nine different multi-actor platforms (MAPs) across Europe set up as arenas for long-term engagements to solve water quality challenges in relation to agriculture. The MAPs represent different histories and legacies of engagement; some are recent initiatives and some are affiliated with previous government-initiated projects, while other MAPs are long-term engagement platforms. A case study approach drawing on insights from the nine engagement processes is used to discuss conditions for enabling long-term multi-actor engagement. The perceived pressure for change and preferred prioritization in complying with mitigating water quality problems vary within and among the MAPs. The results show that governmental and local actors’ concern for water quality improvements and focusing on pressure for change are important for establishing meaningful multi-actor engagement when concerns translate into a clear mandate of the MAP. Furthermore, the degree to which the MAPs have been able to establish relationships and networks with other institutions such as water companies, agricultural and environmental authorities, farmers, and civil society organizations influences possibilities for long-term meaningful engagement. View Full-Text
Keywords: water governance; agriculture; multi-actor approach; engagement; participation; trust; social networks water governance; agriculture; multi-actor approach; engagement; participation; trust; social networks
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nesheim, I.; Sundnes, F.; Enge, C.; Graversgaard, M.; van den Brink, C.; Farrow, L.; Glavan, M.; Hansen, B.; Leitão, I.A.; Rowbottom, J.; Tendler, L. Multi-Actor Platforms in the Water–Agriculture Nexus: Synergies and Long-Term Meaningful Engagement. Water 2021, 13, 3204. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223204

AMA Style

Nesheim I, Sundnes F, Enge C, Graversgaard M, van den Brink C, Farrow L, Glavan M, Hansen B, Leitão IA, Rowbottom J, Tendler L. Multi-Actor Platforms in the Water–Agriculture Nexus: Synergies and Long-Term Meaningful Engagement. Water. 2021; 13(22):3204. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223204

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nesheim, Ingrid, Frode Sundnes, Caroline Enge, Morten Graversgaard, Cors van den Brink, Luke Farrow, Matjaž Glavan, Birgitte Hansen, Inês A. Leitão, Jenny Rowbottom, and Linda Tendler. 2021. "Multi-Actor Platforms in the Water–Agriculture Nexus: Synergies and Long-Term Meaningful Engagement" Water 13, no. 22: 3204. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223204

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