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Article

Coastal Migration Index for Coastal Flooding Events Increased by Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change: Mexico and Cuba Case Studies

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Center for Research and Development in Port, Maritime, and Coastal Engineering (CIDIPORT, Spanish Acronym), Centro Universitario Tampico-Madero, Tampico 89109, Tamaulipas, Mexico
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Center for Multidisciplinary Studies of Coastal Zones (CEMZOC), Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba 90400, Cuba
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Program Ph.D. in Sustainable Development, Department of Civil and Environmental, Universidad de la Costa, Barranquilla 080001, Colombia
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Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
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Department of Marine and Environmental Science, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668, USA
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Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Passed away due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Academic Editor: Athanasios Loukas
Water 2021, 13(21), 3090; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213090
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 22 October 2021 / Accepted: 29 October 2021 / Published: 3 November 2021
This paper presents a coastal migration index (CMI) useful for decision-making in the current scenario of sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change. The CMI includes coastal human population density, degree of urbanization, and coastal-flooding penetration. Quantitative and qualitative statistical techniques and the geographic information system ArcGIS View 9.0 were used. Further, a panel of fifteen international experts in coastal management issues was consulted to establish and validate the CMI. Results led to three index components based on 22 indicators. CMI was applied in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico and in Santiago de Cuba province, Cuba. According to CMI estimates, the risk levels associated with SLR for human settlements analyzed in Mexico and Cuba were 5.3% and 11.0%, respectively. The most severely affected communities will require resettlement. Meanwhile, the CMI determined that 15.8% of the Mexican territory studied will be able to withstand the effects of SLR through the management of engineering works that will protect human settlements. The CMI determined that 79.0%, in the case of Tamaulipas, as well as 89.0% of the Cuban territory, will not require new policies or guidelines to promote conservation and protection of coastal natural resources. Lastly, the method used allowed for creation of a CMI stoplight map useful to coastal decision-makers to adopt sound management actions. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal vulnerability; coastal management; coastal environmental sustainability; stoplight map; hurricanes coastal vulnerability; coastal management; coastal environmental sustainability; stoplight map; hurricanes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiménez-Hernández, S.B.; Pérez Montero, O.; Meza, E.; Velázquez, Y.R.; Castellanos, J.R.; Martínez-Cano, E.; Sosa-Pérez, F.; Herrera, J.F.; Zielinski, S.; Cuker, B.; Oliveira, M.; Anfuso, G.; Milanes, C.B. Coastal Migration Index for Coastal Flooding Events Increased by Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change: Mexico and Cuba Case Studies. Water 2021, 13, 3090. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213090

AMA Style

Jiménez-Hernández SB, Pérez Montero O, Meza E, Velázquez YR, Castellanos JR, Martínez-Cano E, Sosa-Pérez F, Herrera JF, Zielinski S, Cuker B, Oliveira M, Anfuso G, Milanes CB. Coastal Migration Index for Coastal Flooding Events Increased by Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change: Mexico and Cuba Case Studies. Water. 2021; 13(21):3090. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213090

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jiménez-Hernández, Sergio B., Ofelia Pérez Montero, Eustorgio Meza, Yunior R. Velázquez, Juan R. Castellanos, Esperanza Martínez-Cano, Felipe Sosa-Pérez, Juan F. Herrera, Seweryn Zielinski, Benjamin Cuker, Marcos Oliveira, Giorgio Anfuso, and Celene B. Milanes. 2021. "Coastal Migration Index for Coastal Flooding Events Increased by Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change: Mexico and Cuba Case Studies" Water 13, no. 21: 3090. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213090

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