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Article

Applying Risk Indices to Assess and Manage Soil Salinization and Sodification in Crop Fields within a Mediterranean Hydro-Agricultural Area

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Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Beja, R. Pedro Soares S/N, 7800-295 Beja, Portugal
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GeoBioTec, NOVA School of Science and Technology, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
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Earth Remote Sensing Laboratory (EaRSLab), Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal
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Instituto de Ciências da Terra (ICT), Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal
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Departamento de Física, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal
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Centro de Química, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Centro Operativo e de Tecnologia de Regadio, Quinta da Saúde, Apartado 354, 7800-999 Beja, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Renato Morbidelli
Water 2021, 13(21), 3070; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213070
Received: 29 September 2021 / Revised: 27 October 2021 / Accepted: 28 October 2021 / Published: 2 November 2021
Irrigation-induced or secondary salinization can occur when salts are introduced by irrigation water and accumulate within the root zone due to insufficient leaching. Mediterranean regions are especially susceptible, given the predominant climate and the expanding of irrigation areas. In this study, two indices to assess the risk of salinization (RSA) and sodification (RSO), previously applied at a regional scale, were used in a hydro-agricultural area (AHA) in Southern Portugal, in ten crop fields. Information on climate, irrigation water quality, soil characteristics, and land use was obtained from large databases and from local data. The results revealed the feasibility of using the RSA and RSO indices both on large and smaller scales, seeing as most of the area in the monitored crop fields presented the same risk classes (62% in RSA and 78% in RSO). Deviations were due to the reduction in scores for drainage and, in the case of RSO, the assigned irrigation method based on the land occupation class. Considering that different spatial scales of risk assessment are associated with different objectives and management options, a risk management framework was outlined following a multi-scale perspective for mitigation actions in salt-sensitive areas, ranging from territorial planning to the adoption of on-farm practices that can contribute to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: irrigation water quality; irrigation areas; risk assessment; soil salinization; soil sodification; soil and water management practices irrigation water quality; irrigation areas; risk assessment; soil salinization; soil sodification; soil and water management practices
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tomaz, A.; Costa, M.J.; Coutinho, J.; Dôres, J.; Catarino, A.; Martins, I.; Mourinha, C.; Guerreiro, I.; Pereira, M.M.; Fabião, M.; Boteta, L.; Patanita, M.; Palma, P. Applying Risk Indices to Assess and Manage Soil Salinization and Sodification in Crop Fields within a Mediterranean Hydro-Agricultural Area. Water 2021, 13, 3070. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213070

AMA Style

Tomaz A, Costa MJ, Coutinho J, Dôres J, Catarino A, Martins I, Mourinha C, Guerreiro I, Pereira MM, Fabião M, Boteta L, Patanita M, Palma P. Applying Risk Indices to Assess and Manage Soil Salinization and Sodification in Crop Fields within a Mediterranean Hydro-Agricultural Area. Water. 2021; 13(21):3070. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213070

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomaz, Alexandra, Maria João Costa, João Coutinho, José Dôres, Adriana Catarino, Inês Martins, Clarisse Mourinha, Isabel Guerreiro, Maria Margarida Pereira, Marta Fabião, Luís Boteta, Manuel Patanita, and Patrícia Palma. 2021. "Applying Risk Indices to Assess and Manage Soil Salinization and Sodification in Crop Fields within a Mediterranean Hydro-Agricultural Area" Water 13, no. 21: 3070. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213070

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