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Article

Spatial Variability of Groundwater Quality for Freshwater Production in a Semi-Arid Area

1
College of Geography and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China
2
School of Water Conservancy and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China
3
Research Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Siamak Hoseinzadeh
Water 2021, 13(21), 3024; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213024
Received: 8 September 2021 / Revised: 13 October 2021 / Accepted: 22 October 2021 / Published: 28 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
Presenting groundwater quality assessment for different usages using one index is helpful to monitor the quality of this invaluable resource and reduce the cost of freshwater production, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The drinking groundwater quality index (DGWQI) is one the best indicators for groundwater quality assessment. Therefore, the purpose of the present research was to assess and map the groundwater quality of an aquifer for freshwater production in a semi-arid region, using GIS-based spatial analysis of DGWQI. For this goal, mean data from 70 wells collected during 2010–2018 were used. Results showed that total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), and total hardness (TH) had the highest impact on groundwater quality that exceed the permissible range for drinking purposes. Results also revealed that 42% of samples had a DGWQI value between 0 and 100 (appropriate quality class). Sensitivity analysis determined that Mg2+, EC, and TDS with highest mean variation indexes of 18.98, 20.68, and 19.04, respectively, were the most sensitive parameters in the calculation of DGWQI. According to R2 and RMSE, the ordinary kriging and spherical semi-variogram model had good performance for spatial analysis for all DGWQI, Mg2+, EC, and TDS. The DGWQI map showed that in the southern parts the groundwater (50% of the area) had unsuitable quality for drinking. View Full-Text
Keywords: kriging; variogram; carbonate formation; mapping kriging; variogram; carbonate formation; mapping
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Q.; Zhou, B.; Dong, F.; Liu, Z.; Ostovari, Y. Spatial Variability of Groundwater Quality for Freshwater Production in a Semi-Arid Area. Water 2021, 13, 3024. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213024

AMA Style

Zhang Q, Zhou B, Dong F, Liu Z, Ostovari Y. Spatial Variability of Groundwater Quality for Freshwater Production in a Semi-Arid Area. Water. 2021; 13(21):3024. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213024

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Qi, Baohua Zhou, Fang Dong, Zhanhong Liu, and Yaser Ostovari. 2021. "Spatial Variability of Groundwater Quality for Freshwater Production in a Semi-Arid Area" Water 13, no. 21: 3024. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213024

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