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Article

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Effects of Water and Heat on Water Use Efficiency

1
School of Earth Science and Resouces, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
2
Changsha Natural Resources Comprehensive Survey Center, China Geological Survey, Changsha 410000, China
3
Geophysical Survey Center, China Geological Survey, Langfang 065000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mirko Castellini, Simone Di Prima, Ryan Stewart, Marcella Biddoccu, Mehdi Rahmati and Vincenzo Alagna
Water 2021, 13(21), 3019; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213019
Received: 15 August 2021 / Revised: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 21 October 2021 / Published: 27 October 2021
Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is an important indicator of the carbon cycle in the hydrological and ecological system. It is of great significance to study the response of different hydrological processes to climate and to understand ecosystem carbon sink. However, little is known about the effects and mechanisms of precipitation and temperature on the WUE of different hydrological processes. Thus, three kinds of WUEs (GPP/E (eWUE), GPP/Et (tWUE), and GPP/P (pWUE)) are defined for three different hydrological indicators in semi-arid areas in this study in order to reveal the variation pattern of WUEs based on hydrological indicators and their response to climate. We found that in the past 15 years, the seasonal fluctuation of evapotranspiration in arid areas was large, and the spatial difference of WUE of different hydrological processes was obvious. In semi-arid areas, temperature had a significant effect on WUE (about 68–81%). However, precipitation had a lag effect on WUEs, and the negative impact of precipitation has a great influence (about 84–100%). Secondly, the threshold values of precipitation to WUEs (200 or 300 mm) and temperature to WUEs (2 or 7 °C) are also different from previous studies. This study advances our understanding of the influence of different hydrological processes on ecosystem carbon and climate. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration; spatial and temporal; water use efficiency; Gleam Product evapotranspiration; spatial and temporal; water use efficiency; Gleam Product
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tang, Y.-Y.; Chen, J.-P.; Zhang, F.; Yuan, S.-S. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Effects of Water and Heat on Water Use Efficiency. Water 2021, 13, 3019. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213019

AMA Style

Tang Y-Y, Chen J-P, Zhang F, Yuan S-S. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Effects of Water and Heat on Water Use Efficiency. Water. 2021; 13(21):3019. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tang, Yuan-Yuan, Jian-Ping Chen, Feng Zhang, and Shi-Song Yuan. 2021. "Spatiotemporal Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Effects of Water and Heat on Water Use Efficiency" Water 13, no. 21: 3019. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213019

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