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Hydro-Technologies of Mehrgarh, Baluchistan and Indus Valley Civilizations, Punjab, Pakistan (ca. 7000–1500 BC)

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Institute of Social Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60000, Punjab, Pakistan
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Department of Freshwater Resources and Management, Faculty of Aquatic Sciences, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34134, Turkey
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
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Center of Excellence for Climate Change Research, Department of Meteorology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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HAO-Demeter, Agricultural Research Institution of Crete, 71300 Iraklion, Greece
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Union of Hellenic Water Supply and Sewerage Operators, 41222 Larissa, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athanasios Loukas
Water 2021, 13(20), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202813
Received: 8 September 2021 / Revised: 3 October 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 10 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Scarcity: From Ancient to Modern Times and the Future)
Weather and climate have been participating in an imperative function in both the expansion and crumple of mankind civilizations diagonally across the globe ever since the prehistoric eras. The Neolithic Mehrgarh (ca. 7000–2500 BC) and Balochistan and Indus Valley civilizations (ca. 2500–1500 BC), in Sindh Province in Pakistan, have been the spotlight of explorations to historians, anthropologists, and archeologists in terms of their origin, development, and collapse. However, very rare consideration has been given previously to the role of weather and climate, sanitation, and wastewater technologies in highlighting the lessons of these formerly well-developed ancient metropolitan civilizations. This study presents an existing climate of the archaeological sites, sanitation, and wastewater technologies to recognize the different elements that influenced the evolution of the civilization mystery. In addition, it is recommended that the weather and climate conditions in southwest Asia were the foremost controlling element in resolving the destiny of the Indus and Mehrgarh civilizations. Furthermore, the rural tradition was mostly adapted by the increasing rate of western depressions (winter rains), as well as monsoon precipitation in the region. The factors that affected the climate of both civilizations with the passage of time might be population growth, resource conflicts, technological advancement, industrial revolution, Aryan invasion, deforestation, migration, disasters, and sociocultural advancement. The communities residing in both civilizations had well developed agriculture, sanitation, water management, wells, baths, toilets, dockyards, and waterlogging systems and were the master of the water art. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mehrgarh civilization; Indus civilization; climate conditions; sanitation; wastewater management; drainage system; sustainable development Mehrgarh civilization; Indus civilization; climate conditions; sanitation; wastewater management; drainage system; sustainable development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, S.; Yilmaz, N.; Valipour, M.; Angelakis, A.N. Hydro-Technologies of Mehrgarh, Baluchistan and Indus Valley Civilizations, Punjab, Pakistan (ca. 7000–1500 BC). Water 2021, 13, 2813. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202813

AMA Style

Khan S, Yilmaz N, Valipour M, Angelakis AN. Hydro-Technologies of Mehrgarh, Baluchistan and Indus Valley Civilizations, Punjab, Pakistan (ca. 7000–1500 BC). Water. 2021; 13(20):2813. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202813

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Saifullah, Nese Yilmaz, Mohammad Valipour, and Andreas N. Angelakis 2021. "Hydro-Technologies of Mehrgarh, Baluchistan and Indus Valley Civilizations, Punjab, Pakistan (ca. 7000–1500 BC)" Water 13, no. 20: 2813. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202813

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