Evaluation of ERA5 Precipitation Accuracy Based on Various Time Scales over Iran during 2000–2018
2. Study Area
- The dynamic low-pressure precipitationsystem. Large-scale transient eddies often move over the Mediterranean Sea and sometimes over the Black Sea, traveling from the southwest to the northeast across the western strip of the study area, thus causing precipitation. Dynamical forcing and the effect of the mountains have a very significant role in the amount of precipitation delivered from these systems as well as the spatial distribution of precipitation. In this regard, the Zagros Mountain range has an effective role in precipitation distribution, causing a significant difference between precipitation at high altitudes and with the windward direction on the left with wind shelter areas on the right.
- High-pressure systems over northern Iran and the Caspian Sea. Due to the great depth of the Caspian Sea, the sea heats up during the warm season (June–September) and causes heat energy storage. The input of cold northern air in September and October results in considerable precipitation in these areas. The role of the Alborz Mountain range in the precipitation distribution is very significant on the northern and southern slopes of the Alborz chain, most of the precipitation occurs on the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and in the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea, while the amount of precipitation on the southern slopes and in the Central parts of Iran decrease rapidly.
- Southeast Asian monsoon. In some years, the infiltration of this system in the southeastern part of Iran can cause convective rain (often from June to August).
- Zone 1
- covers the south of the Caspian Sea in the north and includes the northeastern slopes of the Alborz Mountains. Precipitation is distributed throughout the year, and autumn is the rainy season.
- Zone 2
- covers the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains to the northeast of the Zagros Mountains. It also includes some plains on the southern side of the Alborz Mountains, such as Zanjan, Qazvin, and Tehran. Orographic precipitation plays a primary role in most months, and convective clouds cause summer precipitation. Generally, the average annual precipitation decreases from the east to the west. The amount of precipitation is much lower than zone 1.
- Zone 3
- is a mountainous region in northeastern Iran and includes the Gorgan Plain in the west and the Cape Dagh Mountains in the northeast, with a semi-arid region that extends to the south and southwest. This zone is mostly affected by the Siberian high pressure in winter. Precipitation is concentrated in winter and spring, and the average annual precipitation decreases in southward.
- Zone 4
- covers the east side of the Zagros Mountains, including the Arak plain and the area toward the Kerman Plain. The average annual precipitation in this region is between 150 mm and 300 mm.
- Zone 5
- includes two vast deserts and extends to Khash in southeastern of Iran. This zone is characterized by a hot and severely dry climate with the lowest precipitation.
- Zone 6
- in the northwest is a mountainous region (Azerbaijan) with a winter precipitation regime.
- Zone 7
- covers large parts of the Zagros Mountains western slopes. This region is one of the wettest regions in Iran, with the highest precipitation occurring in the Mediterranean system.
- Zone 8
- is in the southwestern of the study area includes a mountainous area and flat region. Precipitation mainly occurs in the Red Sea Trough.
- Zone 9
- includes the northern parts of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, which is characterized by very hot and humid conditions.
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Observational Data
3.2. Re-Analysis Dataset
3.3.1. Evaluation Criteria
3.3.2. Metrics Criteria
3.3.3. Detection Criteria
4.1. Daily Evaluation
4.1.1. Daily Metrics
4.1.2. Daily Detection Criteria Results
4.1.3. Spatial Distributions of Daily Metrics
4.1.4. Spatial Distribution of Daily Detection
4.2. Monthly Evaluation
4.2.1. Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Observed and ERA5 Precipitation
4.2.2. Monthly Metrics
4.2.3. Spatial and Temporal Distributions of the Monthly Standard Relative Bias
4.3. Seasonal Evaluation
4.3.1. Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Observed and ERA5 Seasonal Precipitation
4.3.2. Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Seasonal Standard Relative Bias
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Consent to Participate
Consent for Publication
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|Index||Parameter||Zone 1||Zone 2||Zone 3||Zone 4||Zone 5||Zone 6||Zone 7||Zone 8||Zone 9|
|Statistical Error Metrics||Correlation||Max||0.73||0.71||0.71||0.84||0.75||0.68||0.87||0.73||0.78|
|Standard Relative BIAS||Max||0.14||0.16||0.05||0.25||0.08||0.02||0.17||−0.08||0.09|
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Izadi, N.; Karakani, E.G.; Saadatabadi, A.R.; Shamsipour, A.; Fattahi, E.; Habibi, M. Evaluation of ERA5 Precipitation Accuracy Based on Various Time Scales over Iran during 2000–2018. Water 2021, 13, 2538. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182538
Izadi N, Karakani EG, Saadatabadi AR, Shamsipour A, Fattahi E, Habibi M. Evaluation of ERA5 Precipitation Accuracy Based on Various Time Scales over Iran during 2000–2018. Water. 2021; 13(18):2538. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182538Chicago/Turabian Style
Izadi, Naser, Elaheh Ghasemi Karakani, Abbas Ranjbar Saadatabadi, Aliakbar Shamsipour, Ebrahim Fattahi, and Maral Habibi. 2021. "Evaluation of ERA5 Precipitation Accuracy Based on Various Time Scales over Iran during 2000–2018" Water 13, no. 18: 2538. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182538